Terms in this set (47)
Population characteristics of 1789-90
90% rural, 95% lived east of appalachians, trans-Appalachain overrlaow was mainly Kentucky, Ohio, and Tennessee. Ax-and-rifle pioneering life. People on western waters (Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee) were restive and loyal
What was unusual about Washington's election in 1789?
He was the only president to be elected unanimously. He preferred Mount Vernon than politics, balanced instead of brilliant, strength of character instead of art of politician
President may require written opinions of the heads of the executive branch. Departments. Now an official part of Washington administration
Department heads of Washington administration
Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of war: Henry Knox
Who submitted the Bill of Rights to Congress? Why?
Antifederalists criticized the Constitution for not having guaranteed individual rights, such as trial by jury and freedom of religion. Many states ratified Constitution believing it would soon be amended, including these rights
Why were the Ninth and Tenth Amendments important?
The 9th stated that individual rights were not limited to those states/only ones protected
The 10th reserved all rights not explicitly stated or prohibited by the Constitution to the states respectively, or to the people
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized Supreme Court, one justice and 5 associates. Federal and district courts. Established attorney general's office. Created effective courts
Upon what ideas were the fiscal policies of Alexander Hamilton based?
To shape the administration to favor the wealthy so that, in turn, they would provide political and monetary support. Federal regime would prosper, propertied classes would get bigger, and prosperity would trickle down to the masses
What did Hamilton suggest regarding funding and assumption?
He wanted congress to fund at par. He encouraged Congress to assume states' debts. State debts were to be considered proper national obligation and the hope of Hamilton was to bring the states together more tightly to the "federal chariot"
Political bargain reached by Hamilton and Jefferson regarding assumption in 1790
States with large amounts of debt were for the assumption, whereas the states with less debt were not as eager, but they did want the federal discrict on the Potomac
Tariff of 1789
Low tariff of 8% on value of dutiable imports, first tariff law, passed quickly by Congress. Main goal was revenue but also to build a wall around young industries - who insisted for more shelter
What was Hamilton's view about tariffs? Did Congress get along with his ideas?
He wanted a tariff because he felt as if the industrial revolution was coming to America and he wanted to protect well-to- do industries/manufacturing groups. Congress disagreed because they were still focused/dominated by agricultural and commercial interests
What excise tax aroused opposition on the frontier? Why?
The whiskey tax because of the distillers in the backcountry whose roads were wretched and it would force farmers to liquefy bushes of grain to horseback proportions. Also, whiskey flowed so freely on the frontier as distilled liquor and served as money
Who proposed and supported the Bank of the United States in Washington's cabinet? Who opposed it?
Alexander Hamilton created it and believed it was necessary and proper. Thomas Jefferson opposed it and believed whatever wasn't mentioned in the Constitution was prohibited - Hamilton vice versa
Only states and the power to charter banks and that the Constitution should be interpreted strictly and literally
The "necessary and proper clause" stated that Congress had the right to pass any law they found "necessary and proper." Government was allowed to collect taxes late trade. Alexander Hamilton argued that a national bank was "necessary and proper." Congress would be completely justified in creating the Bank of US though implications (implied powers). Loose interpretation if the Constitution
Provisions for the charter for the first Bank of US 1791
$10 million capital, 1/5 owned by federal government. Stock was open for public sale. Was chartered for 20 years
Homespun pioneer folk were harshly affected by the excise tax and believed it was a burden on economic necessity and a medium of exchange. Distillers removes their whiskey poles and cried "Whiskey and no excise!" They tarred and feathered revenue officers and collections were paused. George Washington brought together 13,000 troops from different state militias and divided into columns and marched up hills of Washington and divided, dispersed, and captured
Why was the Whiskey Rebellion important?
The Washington government was greatly strengthened and demanded a new respect
How did Washington's dynamic Secretary of Treasury strengthen the government financially?
The treasury could now be lent money/funds from the Netherlands on favorable items.
Why did political parties form?
When Jefferson and Madison began opposition it Hamiltonians and limited their actions to Congress. Opposition to Hamilton increased and newspaper print was spreading the political message of Thomas Jefferson and Madison
Federalist and Jeffersonian reactions to French Revolution
They originally supported early revolution, but that changed with talk of "blood drinking cannibals." Jeffersonians regretted the guillotine and deaths during the Reign of Terror, but they figured that one could not be expected to be carried from despotism to liberty in a father bed and though that a few thousand lives was a cheap price for freedom
What was US bound to do by the Franco-America on Treaty 1778 when war broke out between France and Britain? What did Jeffersonian Republicans favor?
US was bound to assist France in protecting their West Indies. Many Jefferson-Republicans US should honor the alliance - eager to come into the war against Britain to assist the French. America owed France its freedom and it was time to return the favor
Why did Washington issue the Neutrality Proclamation? Why was it important?
Proclaimed that the US was neutral war between France and Britain and warned Americans to be impartial. America was not ready to enter a war and was to avoid conflict in Europe for a generation, I corded for it to be populous and powerful enough
Edmond Genet was a representative from France who tried to fit out privateers and take advantage the Franco-American a alliance. Often tried to do unneutral activity not allowed by French alliance. Threatened to appeal over Washington to sovereign voters. He was forced to withdraw and was replaced
Treaty of Greenville 1795
General "Mad Anthony" Wayne fought Miamis at Battle of Fallen Timbers. British provided no shelter for the Indians' flee and so Indians offered peace pipe. It gave up large tracts of Old Northwest, Indians got $20,000, and recognition of their sovereign states
What did Britain do on the sea to anger many in America in 1793?
Britain expected the US to naturally defend France because of Franco-American alliance in Britain's attempt to starve out the French West Indies. Some commanders ignored US's neutrality, seized 300 ships American merchant ships in the West Indies, forced many onto British vessels, an threw hundreds into dungeons
Provisions of Jay Treaty irritating to the Jeffersonians
Britain promised to leave posts in America and agreed to pay damages to American ships recently seized. But they didn't pledge to to prevent future sea seizures and impress nets or supplying arms to the Indians. Britain forced John Jay to bind US to pay all debts still owed to British merchants from before Revolutionary War
Deal with Spain. They were afraid of an Anglo-American alliance so they gave the Americans basically everything they asked for, such as free navigation of the Mississippi and the large territory north of Florida that was being disputed
No political parties, favored temporary alliances, but no permanent treaties. Warning against tangling alliances became principle of US foreign policy
Washington's contributions as president
Central government strongly established, west was expanding, kept US out of conflicts and foreign wars
Why wasn't Alexander Hamilton a serious contender for presidency after Washington left office?
His financial policies left him unliked
"President by three votes"
John Adams win presidency by only three votes over Jefferson in electoral college
Adams' political handicaps
Had to replace Washington, was despised by Hamilton, who plotted with some members of Adams' cabinet against him and so he faced conspiracy, inherited hostile conflict with France
Adams sends three reps to France - Marshall, Pinckney, Jay - to negotiate peace agreement, who were snubbed by the French government. 3 French reps demanded bribe of $250,000 to talk with Tallyrand. American reps refused demands and left France. US and France began to fight in undeclared naval war, French demanded apology and demanded $12 million loan
Did Adams favor war with France?
In a way, because it would praise the Federalist Party and bring about a second term for himself. He also realized war must be avoided when the country was weak
Convention of 1800
Adams sent reps to France to meet with Napoleon and Tallyrand to negotiate peace. Ended Franco-American alliance. US agreed to pay damage claims of American shippers
Congress gave Adams authority to deport any immigrant who was thought a risk to national security. Changed naturalization for immigrants wanting to become citizens from 5 years to 14
Violated Constitution. Gave Adams special powers to arrest anyone who spoke out against the war effort and the government. Most,y democratic-republicans and newspaper editors who opposed the war
Sentenced to 4 months in jail for writing about Adams's unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice during the Sedition Act
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Jefferson and Madison tried to convince other states not to support Sedition Act, which failed, and the Sedition act stayed until 1801; it stressed the compact theory. Believed US had overstepped its bound, the compact with states violated. States could nullify federal laws, especially Alien and Sedition
Doctrine of nullification
States created national government, so they had the right to nullify, cancel, or decide not to obey any law believed unconstitutional
Since states created the national government and the states entered into the compact voluntarily, they had the right to refuse to obey any law believed unconstitutional
Leading Federalist in 1790
Strong central government, protection of liver and estates of wealthy, subordinate sovereignty states, government should protect private enterprises but not to interfere with it. Pro-Britain in foreign affairs
Another name for Jeffersonian-Republicans
Weak central government, most power should be with the states where people could keep a watchful eye on public servants. Central authority kept at minimum by strict construction. National debt should be paid off. No special privileges for special classes, agriculture was favored. Rule of the people, for the people but not all