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the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
the complete instructions for making an organism; consists of all the genetic material in an organism's chromosomes
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs; genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but share the same fetal environment
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes; the heritability of a trait may vary depending on the range of populations and environments studied
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
using principles of natural selection to study the evolution of behavior and the mind
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed onto succeeding generations
a branch of psychology that studies the physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
the fertilized egg; it enters a two week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
the developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month
agents (chemicals or viruses) that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by the mother drinking during pregnancy
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation; as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior; relatively uninfluenced by experience
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
in Piaget's theory, the stage (0-2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
in Piaget's theory, the stage (2-7 years) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
Lack of Conservation
Piaget's principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Piaget's theory that the preoperation stage child has difficulty seeing from the perspective of others
Theory of Mind
people's ideas about their own and other's mental states, and how behavior may telegraph feelings, perceptions, and thoughts
Concrete Operational Stage
Piaget's theory concerning the stage of cognitive development (6-11 years) in which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
a disorder which appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and inability to understand others' states of mind
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning around 8 months of age
an emotional tie with another person; shown in children by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress upon separation
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
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