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Biology Chapter 13 hpatdh

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gene
a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome and that codes for a specific hereditary unit
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
nucleotide
in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
purine
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; adenine or guanine
pyrimidine
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; in DNA, either thymine or cytosine
DNA replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
DNA helicase
an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
RNA
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
gene expression
the manifestation of the genetic material of an organism in the form of specific traits
transcription
the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template
translation
the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
codon
in DNA and mRNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal