72 terms

NS 2310 Principles of Food Prep EXAM 3

Texas Tech University Fall 2015 Professor Holli Booe F&C- functions & characteristics
STUDY
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carryover cooking
food continues to cook after removed from heat, which moves from outer to inner portions
myoglobin
receives oxygen from blood and stores it in muscles; increases with exercise; slow & fast twitch fibers in fish; determines pigment in meat
hemoglobin
transports oxygen throughout the body, helps determine pigment in beef
bone marrow
soft, fatty material in center of bones; provides a significant amount of flavor to cooking;
2 types
-yellow: in long bones
-red: supplied w/many blood vessels in the spongy center of other bones
collagen
most abundant connective tissue protein; pearly, white, tough, & fibrous; provides support to muscles
elastin
yellowish & rubbery with elastic qualities; does not soften w/cooking
marbling
intramuscular fat in meats
yield grade
lean meat on carcass in proportion to fat, bone, & other inedible parts
fish & shellfish classifications & categories
~vertebrate
-finfish (O2 through gills)
-sea mammals (O2 from air)
~invertebrate
-shellfish (crustaceans & mollusks)
~salt or fresh water
~lean (less than 5%) or fat
bouillon
clear soup; broth made from meat & veggies then strained to remove solids
bouquet garni
bundle of parsley, thyme, bay leaf, and whole black pepper rolled in a leek and tied together with twine
consommé
clear soup; soup stock made transparent w/use of egg whites
stock
foundational thin liquid produced when meat, poultry, seafood & their bones or vegetables are simmered & strained
white stock
flavored liquid by simmering bones of beef, veal, chicken
brown stock
chicken, meat, are cooked/browned before simmering
bisque
combination of cream & puree (usually crustaceans)
F&C of pigments in meat
primarily from myoglobin & secondarily from hemoglobin
higher myoglobin = more red color
F&C of muscle contraction
fibrils are in segments, or sarcomeres that shorten when thin and thick slide past each other
F&C of myoglobin in poultry & fish coloring
higher contents of myoglobin (muscles that get lots of exercise) will make the meat darker

slow twitch fibers will have more myoglobin (darker), fast twitch fibers have less myoglobin (lighter)
~will appear white, pink, or red
F&C of inspection
~Meat: Mandatory. Federal Meat Inspection Act (1906)
-conducted by USDA
-guarantee of wholesomeness
-not about quality or tenderness

~Poultry: Mandatory. Wholesome Poultry Products Act (1968)
-conducted by USDA
-checked for wholesomeness
-insures the conditions are sanitary; safety not quality

~Eggs: Mandatory. Egg Products Inspection Act (1970)
-conducted by USDA poultry division
-must be wholesome, unadulterated, truthfully labelled
-restricted eggs: checks, leakers, dirties, inedibles

~Fish & Shellfish: Voluntary.
-Nat' Marine Fisheries Service US Dept. of Commerce
-paid by processor
Restricted Eggs
eggs that have failed USDA inspection include:
checks: cracked shells
leakers: broken membranes
dirties: covered w/dirt or stained
inedibles: blood spots
F&C of grading
~Meat: Voluntary. USDA is contracted; quality grade

~Poultry: Voluntary. USDA conducted.
-paid by processor
-3 Grades USDA Grade A, B, C
-may be marketed under grades established by individual packing house; quality not safety

~Eggs: Voluntary. USDA conducted. Best quality are sold at supermarkets (USDA Grade AA, USDA Grade A). Lowest quality are available to food service establishments (USDA Grade B)

~Fish & Shellfish: Voluntary. only inspected fish
-paid by processor
-3 Grades: US Grade A, B, substandard (based on texture, uniformness, flavor, odor, w/out defects)
F&C of muscle structure
~Meat: muscle fibers or sarcolemma, filled w/cell fluid & a bundle of muscle fibrils that contract and relax

~Poultry: similar to meat, has fibrils as well

~Fish & Shellfish: see myotomes & myocommata
F&C of myotomes
layers of short fibers ( < 1 in) in fish muscle
F&C of myocommata
large sheets of very thin connective tissue that separate myotomes
F&C of boiling eggs; adv & disadv
-transforms iron in yolk into ferrous sulfide, causing the greenish-black color & unpleasant flavor found in overcooked hard-boiled eggs

Warm-Start- water heated, then eggs are added
soft= 3-4 mins hard= 12-15 mins
adv: ~greater temperature control ~easier to peel ~shorter total cooking time
disadv: ~lowering eggs into boiling water may cause cracking

Cold-Start- eggs added, then water is heated
soft= 1 min hard= 10 mins
adv: ~less attention to process is required ~easier to add to the water ~less likely to crack
disadv: ~may cause egg white by shell's surface to be more rubbery ~greater chance of a greenish tint forming on egg white
F&C of folding egg whites
-stiffly beaten egg whites are folded into the thick egg yolk mixture
-best to pour the heavier mixture onto the beaten egg whites
-use a spoon or rubber spatula, combine the ingredients with a downward stroke into the bowl, across, up, and over the mixture. Come up through the center of the mixture about every three strokes and rotate the bowl
-avoid stirring, which will force air out of the egg whites.
F&C of value added eggs
contain special attributes due to:
-special feeding practices
-nutrient content
-conditions under which hens are raised
can produce eggs with characteristics like
lower cholesterol or higher in omega-3 fatty acids
F&C of liquid egg substitutes
omit egg yolk
replace egg yolk w/vegetable oil
removing some cholesterol in egg yolk
~can be higher in sodium than regular eggs
F&C of cuticle
waxy coating on eggshell
protects against bacteria & moisture loss
(because shells have thousands of teeny little holes in them)
F&C of how to avoid curdling of cream soups
~stir some of the hot soup into cold dairy product to temper it before adding it to warm ingredients
~do not allow soup to boil after adding any dairy product, especially cheese
~add acid to milk rather than vice versa
~prepare a fat/flour mixture w/either milk or stock
F&C of clear and cream soups
clear includes bouillon (broth made from meat & veggies then strained) and consommé (soup stock made transparent w/use of egg whites)
F&C of flavoring of meat stocks
more mature, uncooked, red meat has more flavor than white (pork, veal), soaking the meat in cold water then boiling briefly & then simmering; vegetables are added near the end of cooking
F&C of salad dressings
...
F&C of gelatin protein content
~incomplete protein
~low biological value
~low in tryptophans
cooking methods for meat
-general recommendations
-best method for different types
Dry-heat preparation: best for tender cuts of meat; includes:
~roasting ~broiling & grilling (smaller cuts 1-3 inches thick) ~pan-broiling (very thin 1/2" thick) ~frying (small cuts low in fat)

Moist-heat preparation: appropriate for less tender cuts that come from heavily exercised muscle & older beef; includes:
~braising ~simmering/stewing ~steaming (large cuts) ~microwave (only for thawing & reheating)
primal cuts of beef, pork & lamb
large cuts, prior to supermarket
~Beef: chuck, rib, short loin, sirloin, round, flank, short plate, fore shank, brisket
~Pork: shoulder butt, loin, leg, side, picnic shoulder
~Lamb: leg, loin, rack, shoulder, foreshank & breast
locations of cuts of meat
see pages ~154: beef ~155: pork ~156: lamb
retail cuts of beef, pork, & lamb
smaller cuts sold to consumer, divided from the primal cuts
~Beef: ground beef, ribs, T-bone steak, ribeye steak, shoulder roast
~Pork: roasts, Canadian bacon, ham, bacon, pork chops
~Lamb: whole leg, top roast, loin chop, tenderloin
proper meat carving
beef: sliced across the grain (direction muscle fibers run)
relationship between exercise, connective tissue, & the tenderness of the meat
more exercise = more connective tissue which = less tender meat
characteristics of top cuts of meat
Inspection stamp should be high
Grading should find:
-optimum color
-find grained, smooth surfaces
-velvety, silky, or satiny to the touch
-fat is evenly distributed, not yellow, and firm
factors which effect meat tenderness
high collagen content = tough meat
use of muscles > bigger fibrils > less tender meat
elastin = rubbery & does not soften with cooking
too high temp for too long = tough meat
nutrient content of meat
roughly 75% water, 20% protein, & varying fat content

Protein- 7 grams per ounce
Fat- varies widely
Carbs- contains very little
Vitamins- excellent source of B vitamins
Minerals- excellent source of iron, zinc, copper, & phosphorous
storage recommendations for meat
refrigeration: 32-36 F, replace wrapping every two days; ~fresh meat no more than 3-5 days ~ground & variety meat cook w/in 1 to 2 days ~cooked 3 to 4 days

frozen: less than or at 0 F, wrapped tightly in aluminum foil, heavy plastic bag, or freezer paper; keeps around 6-12 months ~ground beef keeps 3 months
classifications of poultry
-weight, characteristics, best cooking methods
-simmered never boiled (becomes tough & rubbery)
grading of poultry
-conformation: shape of carcass
-fleshing: amount of meat on bird
-fat: amount and distribution
-blemishes
-each individual chicken is graded
dry & moist heat preparation methods
...
how to determine doneness in poultry
...
difference between types & styles of poultry in the marketplace
...
misc. poultry issues
-antibiotics
-hormones
-additives
...
nutrient content of poultry
...
how to determine freshness of fish
-sniff test
-"fresh fish" aroma
-tight scales
-firm flesh
-stiff body
-red gills
-belly free of swelling or gas
how to determine freshness of shellfish
-look for closed shells
-tap on shell > should close more tightly
-discard shells that are broken, float, or smell like decay
-no decaying color
-shucked oyster should be plump & full bodied
-lobsters & mussels must remain alive until cooked
how to determine doneness in fish
when the meat flakes easily with gentle pressure of fork but doesn't fall apart
forms fish may be purchased in
-whole: entirely intact
-drawn: whole w/entrails removed
-dressed: head, tail, fins, scales, entrails removed
-steaks: cut from dressed fish @ 90 degrees from top to bottom fins
-fillets: cut lengthwise to avoid bones
-sticks: uniform portions cut from filets or steaks, can also be made from minced fish
-canned: packed w/bones sometimes
-cured: cured w/drying, salting, or smoking
-fabricated fish: uses less popular species, mechanically deboned, ground, seasoned, shaped, & often frozen
-caviar: clean, salted fish eggs
-live shellfish: lobsters, oysters, clams, crabs, etc.
effects of freezing on fish & shellfish
-reduces quality
-dryer
-tougher
-less springy
-less flavorful
common mistakes in preparing fish & shellfish
cooking too long
cooking at too high temperature
comparison of fat content between fish & other meats
generally lower in fat than other meats
egg composition & functions in foods
-yolk: 30% of weight, nourishes chick
-albumen: egg white, 58% of weight, water & protein
-shell membranes- between egg white & shell, protects against bacterial infection
-air cell: between shell membranes
-shell: 12% of weight, calcium carbonate
-chalaza: ropy twisted strands of albumen, anchor yolk to center of thick egg white
-cuticle or bloom: see question on cuticle

Functions in Foods:
~structure ~color
~leaven ~coat
~clarify ~thicken
~bind ~glaze
~emulsify
factors that can effect foaming of eggs
beating technique; temperature; type of bowl; careful separation of yolks and whites; and whether or not sugar, fluid, salt, or acid have been added
egg coagulation temperatures
Egg white: 140 F - 158 F
Egg yolk: 144 F - 158 F
beaten eggs coagulate at 156 F
grading methods of eggs
~Candling: observing eggs against a light; egg whites become more thin & transparent after being laid
~Haugh units: by cracking an egg open onto a flat surface; looking at height of thick albumen (fresh will sit up tall & firm, older ones spread out)
~appearance: evaluates thickness of albumen, chalazae, roundness & fullness of yolk, shape & cleanliness & texture of shell
storage recommendations for eggs
-refrigerator: whole eggs keep longer in carton (fresh about 1 month) ~separated egg yolks (2 days) ~egg whites (4 days)

-storage eggs: treated w/a light coat of oil or plastic to prevent microbial contamination, stored in high humidity at low temps close to egg's freezing point around 29 -32 F (use in 1 month, but can be stored 6)

-frozen: can NOT freeze whole egg, ~whites & yolks are mixed or separated
stock ingredients
water, meat, poultry, seafood, and their bones or vegetables
how to thicken cream soups
adding cream, milk, sour cream, egg yolks, pureed vegetables, bread, noodles, rice, or cornstarch
proper cooking technique for creating stock
simmered & strained
salad layers & ingredients
under-liner (1st layer, serves as the foundation or base)
~lettuce or greens, but can be pasta, rice, cottage cheese, or gelatin
body (main part of salad on top of base)
dressing (adds flavor & moistness)
how to prepare a quality leafy green salad
-thoroughly rinse greens to remove any soil
-thoroughly remove water by draining greens, patting w/paper towel or using salad spinner
-remove stems or cores of greens
-refrigerate for at least 30 mins to promote crispness
-hand tearing leaves is preferred to reduce bruising
phases of gel formation
3 phases:
-Hydration: hydrate in cool water before heating, sprinkle over water in 1tablespoon gelatin to 1/4 cup H2O
-Dispersion: use hot water (100 F) or stock, stir often to insure dispersion, cool
-Gelation: refrigerate, will convert to solid 1st, cooling further (1-6 hrs in refrigerator) will create more solid-like gel, also is a colloidal dispersion of a solid dispersed in a liquid
factors influencing gel formation
-temperature = cool, avoid freezing (damages gelatin)
-sugar: delays gel, weakens structure, competes w/water for cross linking sites
-acid: weakens structure, soft gel
-enzymes: found in some fruits, weakens formation by hydrolyzing protein of the gel network
-salts: strengthens & firms structure
-adding solid ingredients can weaken gelling
storage recommendations for soups/stocks
-should never be placed in refrigerator while it's hot
-place hot pot in sink of cold water w/ice until lukewarm (should not exceed one hour)
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