62 terms

Chapter 1 Microbiology

Disease causing microorganisms
the microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes
the microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called
when humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms, the process is called
genetic engineering
A mosquito is considered a microorganism
all microorganisms are best defined as organisms that
are too small to be seen with the unaided eye
an example of biotechnology is
Eschericia coli producing insulin
humans manipulating microorganisms to make products in an industrial setting
unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from other microorganisms
lack cell structure
the Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
what provides a means to gather objective data
spontaneous generation is the belief that:
living things arise from nonliving matter
Koch's Postulates are criteria to establish that:
A specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease
Name the taxons in order (most inclusive to most exclusive)
Domain, kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, genus, species, sub-species
how do you write a scientific name
Genus is capitalized
species in in lowercase
italicized or underlined
Taxonomy involves
nomenclature, classification, taxa, identification
taxonomic categories
is a common name involved in taxonomy?
the branch of science dedicated to classifying organisms
What is the smallest (most exclusive) taxon?
hereditary information changes gradually through time, which leads to various structural and functional changes over generations
the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called
the scheme that represents the natural relatedness between groups of living beings
a scientist discovers a new microbial species.
it is single-celled eucaryote, without a cell wall.
In what kingdom would it be classified?
What kingdom
are prokaryotes in?
What kingdom
are mostly unicellular?
What kingdom
are unicellular or multicellular, and have cell walls?
only multicellular organism are in what 2 kingdoms?
Animalia and Plantae
helminths are:
parasitic worms
Parasites are always
harmful to their host
The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery
Joseph Lister
sterile refers to
absence of any life forms
scientist who showed that anthrax was caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis
Robert Koch
when assigning a scientific name what two things should be italicized or underlined?
genus and species
The scientists who proposed that organisms be assigned to 1 of 3 domains are:
Carl Woese and George Fox
In Whittaker's system, the protozoa and algae are classified in which kingdom?
Which kingdom does not contain eucaryotes?
The area of biology that states that living things undergo gradual structural and functional changes over long periods of time
Living things that an ordinarily termed as too small to see with the naked eye
What group of microorganisms are composed only of hereditary material wrapped in a protein covering?
A scientist:
constructs a hypothesis
tests its validity by outlining predicted events of
the hypothesis
experiments to test for those events
is using what approach?
Scientific method
Which branch of microbiology deals with host microbe interactions?
Which branch of microbiology deals with the use of microbes or their products in a commercial or industrial setting?
Which branch of microbiology deals with the deliberate recombination of genomes of microbes, plants and animals?
genetic engineering
the study of the system of the body's defenses that protect against infection
true nucleus
T or F
Members of the same species share many more characteristics compared to those shared by members of the same kingdom.
T or F
Viruses are not classified in any of Whittaker's 5 kingdoms.
T or F
Members of the kingdom Fungi are photosynthetic.
False, members are NOT photosynthetic
T or F
A scientist studying helminths is working with bacteria.
False, helminths are parasitic worms, not a bacteria
T or F
All microorganisms are parasitic.
False, parasites only make up a very small portion of microorganisms.
T or F
During a scientific experiment, the control group is used to directly test or measure the consequences of a variable in a study.
False, the experimental group is used.
T or F
once an organism is assigned to a particular taxonomic hierarchy, it is permanent and cannot be revised.
T or F
The names of the 3 proposed domains are: Bacteria, Protista and Eukarya
False, Bacteria and Eukarya are 2 of the 3 domains, and Archaea would be the 3rd. Protista is a kingdom.
T or F
One distinguishing characteristic of the archaebacteria is that they live in extreme environments.
True, they live in extreme salt and extreme temperature environments.
When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms, this process is known as:
Genetic engineering
Woese-Fox's 3 Domains
Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya
Whittaker's 5 kingdoms:
Plantae, Fungi (Myceteae), Animalia, Protista, Monera
Woese-Fox's Domain Bacteria includes:
cyanobacteria, clamidias spirochettes, gram-positive bacteria, endospore producers, gram-negative bacteria
Woese-Fox's Domain Archeae include:
methane producers, extreme salt prokaryotes, extreme temperature prokaryotes
Woese-Fox's Domain Eukarya includes:
Eukaryotes: Plants, animals, fungi and protists