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Arts and Humanities
APUSH Ch. 27 The Cold War
Terms in this set (27)
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
This conference that took place on August 1, 1945 between the U.S., Britain & France, and the U.S.S.R., which Truman, Atlee, and Stalin represented respectively. They discussed Germany, Japan, and Poland, the same topics discussed at Yalta. However, this conference differed from Yalta because this was a conference of taking action, as opposed to simply planning. Also, Yalta focused largely on Germany's surrender, but by this point Germany had already surrendered, so Potsdam focused more on Japan. Japan was to unconditionally surrender or be destroyed (by the atomic bomb). As for Germany, the country was divided between the four powers, Russia receiving half and the others each a sixth. The same was done for the city of Berlin. Lastly, Poland was given back land that had been taken during the war by German and a democratic government began to rise. The Potsdam conference marks a sort of conclusion to World War II, but would also lead to other future conflicts.
Ineffective and corrupt leader of China in 1930s and 1940s; he was a wartime ally of the United States, but was unable to stop Communists from seizing power in 1949. His exile to Taiwan was a major American setback in the early days of the Cold War.
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid (over $12 billion) to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
National Security Act of 1947
Reshaped the nation's major military and diplomatic institutions; a new Dept. of Defense would oversee all branches of the armed services, combining functions previously performed separately by the War and Navy depts.; a National Security Council, operating out of the White House, would govern foreign and miliatry power; a CIA would replace the Wartime Office of Strategic Services and would be responsible for collecting info through both open & covert methods; the act gave the president expanded powers with which to pursue the nation's international goals
1949; North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an attack against one of the member nations would be viewed as an attack against them all; protected member nations under American nuclear power; first US peacetime military alliance in history, formal end to US isolationism; inspired Soviet Union to create the German Democratic Republic (Eastern Germany) and explode an atomic bomb in 1949, and set up rival eastern bloc military alliance, the Warsaw Pact in 1955; sparked the massive arms race known as the Cold War
A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its East European satellite nations. Became the counter-alliance to NATO. Both alliance systems planned action in the event of hostilities.
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
NSC-68 or National Security Council Report 68 was a 58 page classified report issued April 14, 1950 during the presidency of Harry Truman. Written in the formative stages of the Cold War, it has become one of the classic historical documents of the Cold War. NSC-68 would shape government actions in the Cold War for the next 20 years and has subsequently been labeled its "blueprint." Truman officially signed NSC-68 on September 30, 1950. It was declassified in 1977.
Nickname for the Serviceman Readjustment Act of 1944; it provided money to US soldiers returning from WWII to pay for college or job training, and provided low-interest home loans.
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
1947:The Act was passed over the veto of Harry S. Truman on the 23rd June, 1947. When it was passed by Congress, Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor." The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Other aspects of the legislation included the right of employers to be exempted from bargaining with unions unless they wished to. The act forbade unions from contributing to political campaigns and required union leaders to affirm they were not supporters of the Communist Party.
Election of 1948
Truman (D), Thomas Dewey (R), Strom Thurmond (Dixecrats), and Henry Wallace (Progressive Party). The Democratic Party was split in this election. Conservative Southern Democrats, unhappy with Truman's liberal civil rights position, withdrew and ran Governor Strom Thurmond on the States' Rights or "Dixiecrats" party. The left wing of the Democratic party formed a new Progressive Party and ran Henry Wallace as its candidate. The Progressives criticized Truman's ineffective domestic policy and disliked his confrontational policy toward the Soviet Union. The Republicans ran Thomas Dewey again. Everyone expected Truman to lose, but Truman went on a cross-country railroad campaign and lambasted the "do-nothing, good-for-nothing" Republican Congress. He won 49.5% to Dewey's 45.1% and Democrats won back both houses of Congress.
U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances.
An american diplomat and an expert on soviet history and culture argued the us and soviet union could not cooperate and that the us must take forceful steps to stop soviet expansion. He came up with the containment policy.
Selective Service System
Independent federal agency in the executive branch. Selective Service works to register all males in the United States, between the ages of 18 to 26,to make sure that the Armed Forces can be adequately supplied with people in case of a crisis in national security.
In 1947 during the Red Scare, ten Hollywood writers went to jail when they plead the fifth amendment when asked of their previous associations with communists. The artists were placed on a blacklist and fired, and a number were barred from work in their professions for years afterward.
McCarran International Security Act
1950: Required all communist organizations to register with the federal government
Julius and Ethel Rosenburg
They were convicted in 1951 of giving atomic bomb data found by American scientists to the Soviet Union. They are the only Americans ever executed during peacetime for espionage.
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda.
A Republican United States senator from Wisconsin, was one of the most controversial figures in American politics. He gained worldwide attention in the early 1950's by charging that Communists had infiltrated the government. McCarthy conducted several public investigations of Communist influence on U.S. foreign policy. Some people praised him as a patriot, but others condemned him for publicly accusing people of disloyalty without sufficient evidence. He did not succeed in identifying any Communists employed by the government. His widely scattered charges gave rise to a new word, McCarthyism.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
an prganization which was led by John L. Lewis, one od the United MIne Workers. The organization conentrated on unskilled laborers in America's heavy industrial division such as steel, automobiles, and mines.
A location in Korea which was the line crossed when the North Korean army invaded the South in 1950. The North Korean easily made their way into the heart of the South, but American GENERAL MACARTHUR was successful in forcing the North Koreans back across the line with the Surprise arrival of UN forces at Inchon, close to the border of the two Koreas.
Hiss had assisted President Roosevelt during the Yalta conference. he was accused of leaking government secrets to the communists, but denied any connections to the communist party. He was convicted of perjury and imprisoned, having falsely testified under oath that he had never been a member of the communist party.
Election of 1952
Took place in an era when Cold War tension between the United States and the Soviet Union was escalating rapidly. Due to unpopularity policies in China and Korea, President Truman decided not to run. The Democratic Party nominated the intellectual Governor of Illinois, Adlai Stevenson. The Republicans countered with war hero General Dwight D. "Ike" Eisenhower who promised to end the war in Korea. "Ike" won in a landslide. Nixon became vice president
Dwightt D. Eisenhower
Eisenhower was a WWII hero who became president in 1952, with the anticommunust Richard M. Nixon as his vice president. His presidency was noted for its foreign policy. Through his idea of "brinkmanship", the U.S. would actively support nations who sought liberation from communism--the brink of nuclear war, pressuring them to back down in the face of American power.
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