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Molecular Geometry

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Covalent Bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Single Covalent Bond
a bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons
Double Covalent Bond
a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons
Triple Covalent Bond
a bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons
Coordinate Covalent Bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
Polar Covalent Bonds
unequal sharing of electrons
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
bonds in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of the same element in a compound.
Resonance Structures
Lewis structures that have the same arrangement of atoms in a molecule but differ in the distribution of electrons among the atoms.
Van der Waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
Dispersion Forces
The weakest molecular interactions caused by the motions of electrons.
Dipole Interactions
intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
Hydrogen Bonding
attraction between positive charge on a hydrogen in a dipole and the negative end of another molecule. Think water!
VSEPR theory
a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
Cohesion
(physics) the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid
Adhesion
an attraction between molecules of different substances
Surface tension
a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces
Capillary Action
a phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries
Surfactant
a substance capable of reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved
Hydrate
compound that has water chemically attached to its ions and written into its chemical formula
Hygroscopic
a term describing salts and other compounds that remove moisture from the air
Efflorescence
Gain salt, loses water
Dessicant
substance used as a drying agent
Solvation
a chemical process in which solvent molecules and molecules or ions of the solute combine to form a compound
Solubility
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
Solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
Solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
Electrolyte
a solution that conducts electricity
Polar
having an uneven distribution of charge
Nonpolar
Equal sharing of electrons
Octahedral
6 places where electrons are found; 6 places with bonding electrons, 0 places with nonbonding electrons, 90 degrees
Trigonal Planar
molecular geometry: 6 electron domains with 3 lone pairs, 120 degrees
Trigonal Pyramidal
molecular geometry: 4 electron domains with 1 lone pair, 107
Trigonal Bipyramidal
5 charge centers, no unshared pairs on central atom
Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound
Dipole
a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions
Nonpolar
Difference less than .5
Polar
Difference in between .5 and 2.1
Ionic
Greater than 2.1