Beck

Matter

### The electrones of an atom are:

moving in pathways called orbitals and
always equal to the number of protons

### 14C6

contains:
6 protons
6 electrons (because always equal)
is an isotope of carbon (yes because isotopes have different # of neutrons, so 2 top #s will be different)
mass # 14

does not pertain:
14 neutrons - it only has 8 neutrons (to find # of neutrons you must subtract the # of protons from the mass #)

electrons

neutron #

### What is the maximum # of electrons in the second energy shell of an atom?

8
n=number of shells
formula: n squared times 2
so, second shell would be n=2, 2 squared = 4, then X 2=8

### What is the maximum # of electrons in the first energy shell of an atom?

2
n=number of shells
formula: n squared times 2
so, first shell would be n=1, 1 squared = 1, then X 2=2

### the valance number is the

number of outermost electrons

molecule

### polar molecules are composed of covalently bonded:

atoms of different electronegativity

Polar molecules

oxidation

### oxidation

any reaction causing a loss

reduction

ionization

cations

anions

electrolytes

reduced

### A +B then AB

synthesis reaction

decompostion

replacement

water

### characteristics of an acid

pH less than 7
lactic acid
vinegar
hydrogen ion donor

pH above 7

pH = 7
water

covalent

ionic bond

hydrogen bond

love water

hate water

hydrophilic
polar and ionic

amino acids

monosaccharides

disaccharide

disaccharide

monosaccharide

polysaccharide

polysaccharide

polysaccharide

polysaccharide

monosaccharide

monosaccharide

lipid

lipid

lipid

lipid

### A monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms will have _____hydrogen atoms and ______ oxygen atoms

10,5
(CH2O)n = where n=5
C5H(2*5)O5 = C5H10O5

### One nucleotide contains the following:

one phosphate
one pentose
one nitrogen base

polysaccharides

### glycosidic bonds

link subunits of disaccharides and polysaccharides together

fatty acids

### An amino acid contains:

an amino group
a carboxyl group
a variable R group
a carbon

does NOT contain:
a nitrogen base

### ATP is best described as

the energy molecule of cells

found in all cells
are catalysts
participate in cell's chemical reactions
can be denatured by heat and other agents

They DO NOT:
have high-energy bonds between phosphates

genome

genome

genome

### Processes that define life include:

growth
reproduction and heredity
metabolism
movement and/or irritability

does NOT include:

mitosis

### during the formation of a carbohydrate bond, the step in which a carbon molecule gives up its OH group, and the other uses the H from its OH group, thereby producing a water molecule.

dehydration synthesis

atomic weight

ions

nucleus

solute, solvent

Carbon

Peptide

saturated

reactant

product

hydrogen bond

catalyst

### triglycerides

important storage lipids

unsaturated

nucleic acids

purines
pyrimidines

pyrimidines

thymine
cytosine
uracil

purines

guanine

messenger

messenger RNA

tranfer RNA

ribosomal RNA

### In _______reproduction, offspring arise from the division of a single parent cell into 2 identical progeny cells.

Asexual
Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction.

### T or F All proteins are enzymes.

False because all enzymes are proteins, not the other way around.

True

True

### T or F Nucleic acids have primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels of organization.

False, proteins have these characteristics, not nucleic acids.

cell membrane

Example: