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a set of observations drawn from the population of interest that, it is hoped, share the same characteristics as the population of interest
is any observation of a physical, attitudinal, or behavioral characteristic that can take on different values
is a hypothetical idea that is developed (or constructed) to describe and explain human behavior
can take on only specific values (whole numbers); no other values can exist between these numbers
can take on a full range of values (numbers out to many decimal points); there is an infinite number of potential values
is a variable used for observations that have categories, or names, as their values
is a variable used for observations that have rankings (1st, 2nd, 3rd...) as their values
is a variable that has numbers as its values; the distance (or interval) between pairs of consecutive numbers is assumed to be equal
is a variable that meets the criteria for interval variables but also has a meaningful zero point
is a variable that we either manipulate or observe to determine its effects on the dependent variable
is the outcome variable that we hypothesize to be related to, or caused by, changes in the independent variable
is any variable that systematically co-varies with the independent variable so that we cannot logically determine which variable is at work; also called confound
is a randomly distributed influence that detracts from the experimenter's efforts to measure what was intended to be measured
influences an experiment by making the relations between variables less clear than they really are
refers to whether the scale being used provides consistent information every time the test is taken
refers to how well a measuring instrument (such as a personality scale) predicts actual behavior
is the process of drawing conclusions about whether a particular relation between variables is supported by the evidence
specifies the operations or procedures used to measure or manipulate a variable
is a study in which participants are randomly assigned to a condition or level or one or more independent variables
every participant is a study has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups, or experimental conditions, in the study
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