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21 terms

Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
Common Law
a system of law based on precedent and customs
Colony
a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country
Joint Stock Company
investors provide partial ownership in a company organized for profit
Charter
a written document granting land and the authority to set up colonial governments
Compact
an agreement, or contract, among a group of people
Enlightenment
a movement that spread the idea that reason and science could improve society
Monarch
a king or a queen
Magna Carta
created by nobles who rebelled against King John in 1215; protected their privileges and authority
Glorious Revolution
a peaceful transfer of power that changed government in England
Natural Rights
natural rights to life liberty, and property that no government can take away
English Bill of Rights
document in 1689 that further restricted monarch's power; guaranteed free elections to Parliament, the right to a fair trial, and the elimination of cruel and unusual punishments
Baron de Montesquieu
a French writer who developed the idea about dividing the branches of government into different parts to balance each other so that no one part can become too strong or threaten individual rights
Social Contract
an agreement among people in a society
John Locke
an English writer who proposed natural rights and also created a social contract
House of Burgesses (Who)
created by colonists
House of Burgesses (What)
first representative assembly, or legislature
House of Burgesses (When)
1619
House of Burgesses (Where)
English colonies (Jamestown)
House of Burgesses (Why)
marked the beginning of self-government in colonial America
town meetings
held to address local problems and issues; developed into local town governments
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
America's first written constitution; called for an assembly of elected representatives from each town to make laws; called for the popular election of a governor and judges