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Forensic Psychology - MId term
Terms in this set (58)
Why might judges be reluctant to fully embrace psychological research?
They may view social science as an attempt to undermine their authority.
Roles that psychologists may play in the legal system include:
The Daubert trilogy impacts trial courts by:
permitting more lawyers to file motions to limit or exclude experts from the opposing side.
Sam is a cognitive psychologist. What aspect of the legal process might he provide assistance to the court?
clarify whether jurors understand the instructions for deliberation for a verdict
According to your text, the goal of psychology is ____, while the goal of legal system _____.
to emphasize the characteristics of groups; is to emphasize individual cases
The term amicus curiae can best be defined as:
friend of the court
Interactions between psychology and law have been complicated by differences in:
All of these have complicated such interactions
Trial consultants are used to:
According to the text, the term gatekeeper refers to:
the judges' assessment of scientific validity of testimony before allowing it in trial
The basis of the adversarial system in law is that
truth will emerge as a result of conflict between opposing sides
According to the Lilienfeld and Landfield article, the ad ignorantium fallacy is characteristic of which of the ten indicators of "pseudoscience"?
reversal of burden of proof
Individuation of trace refers to
the trace found at the crime scene described as being from a particular source at the exclusion of all other sources that can be found in the world.
Bowers (2002) conducted a study on the ability of forensic dentists to match a bite mark to the teeth of a defendant and found that they falsely identified an innocent person _____ of the time.
Which of the following is not an indicator of "pseudoscience" as describede in the Lilienfeld and Landfield article?
fabricating evidence to support theories
As described in the Lilienfeld and Landfield article, the reliance of police investigators on the use of hypnosis for memory refreshment is an example of which indicator of "pseudoscience"?
Ad Antequitem Fallacy
Forensic identification can best be defined as:
the process of linking physical evidence to a particular individual
The text noted that jurors are more persuaded by _____ than by _____ or _____.
fingerprints; alibis; eyewitnesses
Rank the following types of forensic identification evidence from the strongest empirical support to the weakest
DNA, fingerprints, striations
Nicholas was brought in for questioning as a result of detailed police work, including fingerprints. He was "excluded" as a suspect. This means:
the fingerprints were found to be from someone else.
Jurors' understanding of trace evidence can be influenced by how the evidence is presented in court, particularly in terms of statistical probabilities. According to the exemplar-cueing theory described in the text, which of the following would be a characteristic of a "defense-friendly" statement about DNA trace evidence that might contribute to a not-guilty verdict?
Use of a frequency statement to describe the potential for a match of a DNA sample to a defendant.
Mission-oriented types of serial killers often
are motivated by the desire to kill individuals they consider evil or deserving of death.
The legislation that was enacted (in the United Kingdom) to make it illegal to trick suspects or to lie for the purpose of coercing suspects to confess is the:
Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE).
According to the Criminal Profiling article, which of the following is NOT one of the four aspects of human cognition that contribute to what the authors' describe as an illusory belief in the effectiveness of criminal profiling?
ad hominem reasoning
According to the Criminal Profiling article, which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of criminal profiling?
The FBI has not revised its profiling strategies in over 30 years.
The NASH system is utilized to classify:
causes of death
When assessing for common traits among stranger rapists, Mokros and Alison (2004) found that there was _________________ among criminals who committed similar crimes.
no demographic resemblance
The most commonly identified type of false confession is the
instrumental-coerced false confession
A direct accusation that suspects committed the crime for which they are charged is referred to as:
certainty of guilt
Results of a study completed by Kassin & Neumann (1997), indicated that confessions resulted in a conviction rate of ____________ as opposed to a rate of ______________ with eyewitness testimony.
According to the text,it is hypothesized that the disorganized killer is more likely to _________________, whereas the organized killer may be inclined to _________________.
display minimal interest in media attention; follow media accounts of the crime
The control question test (CQT) posits that guilty individuals react to _____________ questions, whereas innocent individuals react to __________________ questions.
Bias-reducing instructions are used to assist eyewitnesses to be accurate in their identification of a suspect. An example of such instructions, as noted in the text, is telling the eyewitness that:
" the suspect might not be in the lineup or photo spread."
Wrongful convictions have been shown to take place as a result of eyewitness testimony __________ any other type of evidence
According to the text, polygraphers using carefully controlled procedures such as the CQT fail to identify about ______ of guilty suspects and have a false positive rate of ______ for innocent individuals.
According to research completed by Lykken (1998), when the guilty knowledge test (GKT) is used, ________ of innocent suspects were accurately identified, while __________ of guilty suspects were correctly classified
Cross-racial identifications are generally __________ accurate than/as same-race identification.
The reassignment of a face that is familiar from another context to the scene of a crime is referred to as:
In addition to issues with memory in general, other things can influence witness accuracy. Interference can take place because, during the process of identification of a suspect, witnesses are often inclined to overestimate their perception of an event or perpetrator as a result of _____________ and _______________.
biased questioning; lineup procedures
According to research completed by Bond and DePaulo (2006), people's ability to distinguish lies was noted as having a __________overall rate of accuracy.
The process of having an eyewitness look at one person or photograph at a time is referred to as _____________lineups. This procedure has been shown to ________ the number of mistaken identifications.
Competency to stand trial (CST) refers to the psychological state of the accused:
at the time of trial
In the reading comparing fitness to plead and competence to stand trial in England and the U.S., the authors reported that the Pritchard criteria in England has resulted in _______ findings of non-competence than the Dusky criteria in the U.S.
According to the text, ___________ states allow juveniles of a certain age to be tried in adult venues when charged with serious crimes.
In the assigned reading, the Pritchard criteria for fitness to plead in England was based on a case involving _____ while the Dusky criteria for competence to stand trial in the U.S. was based on a case involving _____.
speech and hearing impairment; schizophrenia
A person accused of a crime has the right to plead guilty and waive having an attorney. However, according to the Supreme Court (Johnson v. Zerbst), a guilty plea must be:
knowing, intelligent, and voluntary.
Competency to stand trial (CST) has two components to its definition. The first component refers to the accused individual's _______________. The second component refers to the accused individual's ________________.
ability to interact rationally with an attorney; understanding about how the court process works
According to the reading, the DomesticViolence, Crime and Victims Act (2004) continues the precedent in English law of treating the capacity to enter a plea and a trial of the evidence separately. This law established that ______ is responsible for determining a defendant's fitness to enter a plea.
Following Jackson v. Indiana (1972), it is generally accepted that an individual found not competent to stand trial is limited to confinement between ____________, and then reevaluated.
According to the definition in the text, malingering means that an individual is:
intentionally faking a mental illness or disability because of an external incentive
_______________ occurs when group pressure results in holdout jurors changing their votes.
Jurors that create a causal chain of events are said to be utilizing the _________________ of decision making.
During the deliberation process, two distinct styles are evident. These two styles are ____________________ and ___________________
verdict-driven style; evidence-driven style
Research has demonstrated that once jurors are instructed to disregard pretrial publicity, they often:
demonstrate no remedial effects of instructions
Preinstructions given to a jury before the beginning of a trial appear to provide a(n) ____________ that proves to be helpful to jurors in organizing information presented in trials.
Nicole is an attorney handling a high-profile case. Much rests with the decision of the jury in terms of damages that may be required of the defendant to pay. To help in the process, she decides to pull together a group that matches the demographics of the actual jury. The group is known as:
a shadow jury
According to the text, research completed by Olczak, Kaplan, and Penrod (1991), revealed that seasoned lawyers performed _______________ students when selecting favorable juries.
equally as well as
The __________________ is when the characteristics of jurors and the defendant are similar to the extent that it might influence verdicts.
It would appear as though there are a few personality traits or tendencies that have been demonstrated to have a bearing on jury verdicts. According to the text, which of the following traits has NOT been shown to be an important predictor of jury verdicts?
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