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58 terms

Arthrology Quiz

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articulations
joints
arthrology
study of joints
kinesiology
study of muscle and skeletal movements
by how they connect
how are joints classified structurally
synarthrosis
immovable joints
by how much or how little a joint moves
how are joints classified functionally
ampiarthrosis
limited range of motion
diarthrosis
freely moveable joints
fibrous(synarthrosis), cartilaginous(ampiarthrosis), synovial(diarthrosis)
3 types of joints
sutures, gomphoses, syndesmoses
3 types of fibrous joints
gomphoses
attatchment of a tooth to its socket by a periodontal ligament
syndesmoses
joint in which 2 bones are bound by a ligament only (interosseus membrane), have more mobility than the other 2
synchondroses, symphysis
2 types of cartilaginous joints
synchondrosis
bones are bound by hyaline cartilage (costal cartilage)
2 bones are joined by fibrocartilage
symphysis
articular cartilage, articular capsule, synovial fluid, ligaments
components of a synovial joint
synovialcytes
they secret synovial fluid
bursa
pillows of synovial fluid
extracapsular-outside joint capsule, intracapsular-inside joint capsule (ONLY found in knee and hip)
kinds of ligaments
articular disks
absorb shock between 2 bones
tendon sheaths
elongated cylindrical bursae wrapped around a tendon
types of synovial joints
ball and socket (spheroid)
condyloid (ellipsoid)
saddle
gliding (planar)
hinge (ginglymus)
pivot
gliding joints
flat surfaces (intercarpal joints)
pivot joint
one bone fits into the ring of another (proximal radioulnar joint)
condyloid joints
reduced ball and socket (radiocarpal joints of wrist)
saddle joint
shaped like a saddle (sternoclavicular joint)
flexion
decreases the angle of a joint
extension
straightens a joint and returns a body part to anatomical position
hyperextension
extension of a joint beyond 180 degrees
inversion
tips sole of foot inward
eversion
tips sole of foot outward
dorsiflexion
toes point up
plantarflexion
toes point down
pronation
face down
supination
face up
circumduction
movement of a distal end of a body part in a circle
protraction
anterior movement of a body part on the transverse plane
retraction
posterior movement
lateral excursion
sideways movement of the mandible to the left or right
medial excursion
movement of the madible back to the midline
rotator cuff
cuff formed by tendons that are fused to the joint capsule on all sides except the interior
subdeltoid, subacromiae, subcoracoid, subscapular
bursae associated with the shoulder joint
supraspinatous, subscapularis, infraspinatous, teres minae
tendons of what muscles form the rotator cuff
annual
circle
the ulnar and radial collateral ligaments, trochlear notch
what is the elbow joint stabilized by?
ligaments of the hip joint
round ligament(intracapsular), iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral, transverse(extracapsular)
anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
what are the intracapsular ligaments of the knee?
functions of muscles
movement, stability, control of body openings and passages, heat production, glycemic control (blood glucose concentration)
connective tissues associated with muscles
fascia (superficial and deep)-separates neighboring muscles, epimysium-surrounds muscle, perimysium-covers fasicles, endomysium-covers muscle fibers
aponeurosis
flat tendons
multinucleated
muscle cells are
striated
overlapping arrangements of myofilaments; light and dark bands
myosin(thick), actin(thin)
2 kinds of myofilaments
tropomyosin and troponin
regulatory proteins
structural proteins
dystrophin
sarcomere
unit of contraction
myoglobin
protein that holds oxygen in muscle cells
sarcolemma
endomysium that covers the cell membrane- double layer of endomysium and cell membrane