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Antibacterials-Peptide antibiotics

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What are some peptide antibiotics?
- Glycopeptides:
vancomycin

- Polymyxins:
polymyxin B

-Bacitracin
What is the activity and spectrum of the Glycopeptides?
-Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
-Bactericidal
-Both time- and concentration-dependent
-Only Gram+ (both aerobes and anaerobes)
What are the pharmacokinetics and toxicity issues with Glycopeptides?
- Poorly absorbed orally => IV
- Mainly renal elimination
- Marked tissue toxicity
Nephrotoxicity +++
What are some usages for Glycopeptides?
- No reliable evidence for dosages and/or efficacy in
Vet. Med
- Banned in Food Animals
- NEVER to be used empirically
- NOT a first line antibiotic
- Should be used as a last resort for multi-resistant
Gram+ infections in veterinary medicine AFTER
culture & sensitivity testing and if & only if no
other option
What is the activity and spectrum of the Polymyxins?
-Disruptor of cell membranes + Endotoxin effect
-Bactericidal
-Concentration-dependent
-Only Gram- (both aerobes and anaerobes)
-Including Pseudomonas
What are the pharmacokinetics and toxicity issues with Polymyxins?
-Not absorbed orally, give IV
-Slow renal elmination (nephrotoxicity)
-Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity when used systemically
What are the usages of Polymyxins?
-Local use (otitis, dermatitis)
-Systemic use-at low doses for endotoxin activity
Bacitracin! what are its activities?
-Cell wall synthesis inhibitors
- Bactericidal
- Time-dependent
- Mainly active against Gram+
- Highly nephrotoxic when used
systemically
- Used topically (in combo with neomycin and polymyxin b)