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Is a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meaning.

Content level of meaning

Contains the literal message

Critical thinking

Examine ideas carefully to decide what to believe, think and do in particular siuations. thoughtfully, considers evidence, alternative conclusions and actions.

Interpersonal communication

Communication between two or more people

Intrapersonal communication

communication with oneself


It is ongoing and always in motion, moving forward and changing continually.


all language and many nonverbal behaviors, as well as art music. Anything that abstractly signifies something else can be a symbol.


Beliefs, values,understanding, practices shared by a number of people. guide how we prceive, think feel and act.


Explanations of why things happen and why people act as they do.


the heart of communication. the significance we attach to words, actions, people, objects and events.


the subjective process of explaining perceptions to assign meaning to them.

Personal construct

mental yardsticks that allow us to position people and situations along bipolar demensions of judgement.


A predictive generalization about people and situations.

Ego boundaries

An individual's perception of where he or she stops and the rest of the world begins.

Particular others

the viewpoints of specific peole who are significant to us. (Mother, fathers, teachers)

Identity script

rules of how we are suppossed to live and who we are supposed to be.

Perspective of the generalized other

how we see ourselves the collection of rules, roles, and attitudes endored by the whole social community in which we live.

Critical listening

we listen to form opinions, to make judgments, or to evaluate people and ideas. to analyze and evaluate information.


the phyiological activity the occurs when sound waves hit our eardrums.


active, complex process that includes being mindful, physically receiving messages, selecting and organizing information, interpreting communication, responding and remembering.

Literal listening

Listening only to the content level of meaning and ignoring the relationship level of meaning.

relational listening

focuses on listening to understand how the other person feels is important in maintaing a relationship

selective listening

a listening style in which the receiver responds only to messages that interest him or her.


pretending to listen

Literal listening/ relational listening/ selective listening/ pseudolistening

Forms of nonlistening


symbols that are not concrete or tangible. Ideas, people, events, objects, feelings. (not the things they represent)


symbols that are not fixed in an absolute way. words vary based on the values and experiences of those who use them.


symbols that are not intrinsically connected to what they represent. (book has no natural connection to what you are reading now)

Communication/ constitutive/ regulative rules

Principles of Verbal Communication: Regulative rules regulate when, where, how, and with whom we communicate. An example of this would be that Americans in informal conversations might interrupt others talking. We learn what situations are ok for us to do this through regulative rules. Constitutive rules give meaning to specific kinds of communication. I know that someone smiling at me is a sign of friendliness through constitutive rules.

Dual perspective

The ability to understand both your own and another's perspective, beliefs, thoughts, and feelings.


personal objects awith which we announce our identities and personalize our environment. we craft our image-how we dress, the jewlry we wear and object we carry an use.


how we perceive and use time to define idenities and interaction.


the study of the communicative function of touch


the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions


vocal communication that does not involve words. such as giggling, groaning, or sighing, as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo


The interpretation of a person's use of space and distance.distances between individuals in different cultures and situation-norms for using space.

Nonverbal communication

all aspects of communication other than words themselves.


when people give up their own ways and adopt into the dominant culture.


borrowing from another culture


the use of one's own culture and its practices as the standard for interpreting the values beliefs, norms and communication of other cultures.

High-context communication style

indirect and undetailed communication, typically seen in collectivist cultures

Low-context communication style

Language that is very explicit, detailed, and precise; generally used in individualistic cultures


occurs when we attack the cultural practices of others or proelaim that your own cultural traditions are superior.


second responce to diversity. the acceptance of differences even though we may not approve of or even understand them.

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