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20 terms

Meiosis & Heredity- Vocabulary

Study Sesh for the Meiosis Test on 2/17/12
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Traits
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
Heredity
The passing of traits from parent to offspring
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity
Genes
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Alleles
The different forms of a gene
Dominant Allele
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
Recessive Allele
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a trait
Probability
The likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett Square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype
an organism's physical appearance or visible trait
Genotype
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combination
Purebred
An organism that always produced offspring with the same form of trait as the parent
Hybrid
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait; An organism that is heterozygous for a trait
Codominance
A condition in which neither two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive
Chromosome
A double rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information
Karyotype
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
Meiosis
The process that occurs in gametes(sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by 1/2
What is the difference between Meiosis vs. Mitosis
Meiosis- The division of sex cells (Sperm and Egg)
Mitosis- Division of normal cells (Somatic Cells)