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MTEL General Curriculum

Terms in this set (425)

After Columbus brought news of the new world to Europe many people went to the new world in search of land and riches. The Spanish Conquistadors were some of the first men to travel to the new world. They got their name from being both conquerors and explorers. They were mostly in search of gold and treasure.
Hernan Cortes (1495 - 1547)

Cortes was one of the first Conquistadors. He was responsible for conquering the Aztec Empire and claiming Mexico for Spain. In 1519 he took a fleet of ships from Cuba to the Yucatan Peninsula. There he heard of the rich Empire of the Aztecs. In search of treasure Cortes made his way inland to the great Aztec capital Tenochtitlan. He then proceeded to conquer the Aztecs and kill the Aztec Emperor Montezuma.

Hernan Cortez Conquistador
Hernan Cortes


Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541)

Pizarro explored much of the west coast of South America. In 1532 he conquered the great Incan Empire of Peru and killed the last Incan Emperor, Atahualpa. He took over the Incan capital of Cuzco and established the city of Lima. He also gained huge amounts of gold and silver.

Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475-1519)

In 1511 Balboa founded the first European settlement in South America, the city of Santa Maria de la Antigua del Darien. Later he would gather together Spanish soldiers (including Francisco Pizarro) and make his way across the Isthmus of Panama. He became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.

Juan Ponce de León (1474 - 1521)

Ponce de Leon sailed with Christopher Columbus on his second voyage. He stayed in Santo Domingo and soon became governor of Puerto Rico. In 1513, exploring the Caribbean, searching for gold and the legendary Fountain of Youth, he landed on Florida and claimed it for Spain. He died in Cuba from wounds received while fighting Native Americans.

Hernando de Soto (1497? - 1542)

Hernando de Soto's first expedition was to Nicaragua with Francisco de Cordoba. Later he traveled to Peru as part of Pizarro's expedition to conquer the Incas. In 1539 de Soto gained command of his own expedition. He was given the right to conquer Florida by the King of Spain. He explored much of Florida and then made his way inland into North America. He was the first European to have crossed west of the Mississippi River. He died in 1542 and was buried near the Mississippi.
As a further measure to force the colonies to help pay off the war debt, Prime Minister Grenville pushed the Stamp Act through Parliament in March 1765. This act required Americans to buy special watermarked paper for newspapers, playing cards, and legal documents such as wills and marriage licenses. Violators faced juryless trials in Nova Scotian vice-admiralty courts, where guilt was presumed until innocence was proven.
Like the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act was aimed at raising revenue from the colonists. As such, it elicited fierce colonial resistance. In the colonies, legal pamphlets circulated condemning the act on the grounds that it was "taxation without representation." Colonists believed they should not have to pay Parliamentary taxes because they did not elect any members of Parliament. They argued that they should be able to determine their own taxes independent of Parliament.
Prime Minister Grenville and his followers retorted that Americans were obliged to pay Parliamentary taxes because they shared the same status as many British males who did not have enough property to be granted the vote or who lived in certain large cities that had no seats in Parliament. He claimed that all of these people were "virtually represented" in Parliament. This theory of virtual representation held that the members of Parliament not only represented their specific geographical constituencies, but they also considered the well-being of all British subjects when deliberating on legislation.
Parliament responded swiftly and angrily to the Tea Party with a string of legislation that came to be known as the Intolerable Acts. The Intolerable Acts included the four Coercive Acts of 1773 and the Quebec Act. The four Coercive Acts:
Closed Boston Harbor to trade until the city paid for the lost tea.
Removed certain democratic elements of the Massachusetts government, most notably by making formerly elected positions appointed by the crown.
Restricted town meetings, requiring that their agenda be approved by the royal governor
Declared that any royal agent charged with murder in the colonies would be tried in Britain.
Instated the Quartering Act, forcing civilians to house and support British soldiers
The Quebec Act, unrelated to the Coercive Acts but just as offensive to the colonists, established Roman Catholicism as Quebec's official religion, gave Quebec's royal governors wide powers, and extended Quebec's borders south to the Ohio River and west to the Mississippi, thereby inhibiting westward expansion of the colonies.
The colonists saw the Intolerable Acts as a British plan to starve the New England colonists while reducing their ability to organize and protest. The acts not only imposed a heavy military presence in the colonies, but also, in the colonists' minds, effectively authorized the military to murder colonists with impunity. Colonists feared that once the colonies had been subdued, Britain would impose the autocratic model of government outlined in the Quebec Act.
Emmett Till was a fourteen year-old African American boy who was tortured and killed in Money, Mississippi in 1955 after allegedly insulting a white woman. Born in Chicago, Illinois, Till lived with his mother, Mamie Till. His father, Louis Till, died while serving in the U.S. Army in Italy in 1945. In the summer of 1955, Till went to visit with his 64 year old great-uncle, Mose Wright and family. Before leaving home, Till's mother instructed him to follow Southern customs and mind his manners, but having grown up in a Northern city like Chicago, Till was unaware of the legacy of lynching and the rigid social caste system in the South. On August 24, 1955, while at a local grocery store with his cousins, Till reportedly left the store whistling at the white female clerk, Carolyn Bryant. Soon after the incident, Roy Bryant, the clerk's 24-year-old husband, and his half-brother, J.W. Milam, appeared at Mose Wright's cabin around 2:30 a.m. The armed men kidnapped Till, slashed out one of his eyes, and tied a 100-pound cotton gin fan around his neck with barbed wire. Till was severely beaten, shot in the head, and thrown into the Tallahatchie River. Two fishermen found Till's mutilated and unrecognizable corpse three days later. Mamie Till-Bradley (In 1951 Till briefly married "Pink" Bradley in Detroit, Michigan) immediately requested her son's bloated, mutilated body be returned to Chicago and displayed in an open casket funeral at Roberts Temple Church of God in Christ. She proclaimed, "I wanted the world to see what they did to my son." Tens of thousands of people lined up to view the body at the mortuary and over 50,000 mourners attended the funeral services days later. Till's murder symbolized for many African Americans the inherent racism and disparity of justice they continued to face in the aftermath of World War II. Because of the media and particularly the coverage by the African American press, the murder gained national and international attention that prompted public discourse on segregation, racial violence, and social, political, and economic equality.