Revelation of information that the audience needs to know in order to understand the play. Exposition may happen either through scenery, sound effects, action, or dialogue
Keeps the audience interested, don't let them surpass the importance of other elements of the play, they should be plausible
Situation in which a character makes a remark that the audience is intend to understand as ironic, or in contradiction to the full truth
Action that takes place off to the side or in the background while the main action continues; byplay captures the audience's attention and adds humor without being overly distracting
The play tends to cut out all the downtime, randomness, unrelated details, and unimportant monotonies of real life
Scene of Recognition (Anagnorsis)
A Moment when a main character had a realization or makes a significant discover regarding the conflict, a truth about the past, the truth about herself, or the irony and/or severity of the present situation. Also Known as Anagnorsis, or epiphany
The world of the play is introduced. We learn about the setting, the characters, and the basic situation of the play
The event the sets the conflict into motion. At this moment wit becomes clear who the main character is and what he/she needs to do
This usually makes up most of the play. The main character attempts to achieve his/her dramatic need
It shows how the world of the play had or has not changed due to the resolution of the conflict
Three Act Structure
Act 1: Introduce the problem, Act 2: Develop the problem, Act 3: Resolve the problem
Deux Ex Machina
A plot in which all of a sudden something comes out of nowhere at the end and makes everything all right
The protagonist succeeds or fails but the result is not exactly what the protagonist though it would be. Or perhaps, the protagonist gets what he wants, but also get another thing that he wasn't expecting or hoping for
Sometimes relate to the main plot merely through a similarity in theme. Sometimes they feed into the main plot, affecting its outcome.
Those things without which we cannot live: food, water, air, shelter clothing. Survival
When one character speaks for an extended period of time, to the other character within a scene
Dialogue that is monologue heavy (lots of longer speeches being exchanged between 2 or more characters).
Aristotle spoke of the notion of The Three Unities (Place, Time, and Action). This meant that the entire play was to occur in one location with one continuous flow of action and time.
A play that takes place in several short episodes (scenes or acts) over the course of a relatively short period of time (i.e., a weekend, a month, a season, a few years, etc.) Scene locations may vary or stay the same.
A play that takes place in several short episodes (scenes or acts) over the course of a long period of time (i.e., a lifetime, the duration of a war, an era of some sort, etc.) Scene locations may vary or stay the same.
Multiple stories happening in different time periods are woven together to create one play.
Scenes that occur in the past--outside of the time sequence established by the rest of the script. Rather than simply having a character tell the story of what happened long ago, the playwright can simply write that scene and include it in the play. Rather than simply having a character tell the story of what happened long ago, the playwright can simply write that scene and include it in the play.
when the final scene occurs a long time after the climax. In this final scene, the effects of the climax are revealed through exposition.
A device in which a setting and a few characters are established. Then, one of the characters will begin telling a story which makes up the bulk of the play. At the end we return to the original characters, realizing how the story has affected them.
Ebb and Flow
A play's focus and retreat from the its central conflict. Longer plays retreat from the main conflict in order to provide backstory, create atmosphere, explore character dynamics, and provide comic relief.
The notion of only including characters, actions, speech, and settings that are absolutely essential contributions to the plot and theme(s).
the strategy a character uses in order to get what he or she wants; how the character attempts to remove the obstacle to his or her need.