CPA EXAM 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory
Terms in this set (37)
Where is the heart?
Pericardial cavity, mediastinal space, behind the sternum, in front of the trachea, between the lungs above the diaphragm, 2/3 of mass left of midline
Where can the heart be best heard?
Closest to the chest wall, can be best heard at the 5th intercostal space, midclavicular line
Pericardium is a sac enclosing the heart and the great vessels. (SVC, IVC, PA, PV, and Aorta).
circular fibers (muscle layer-middle)
lines heart chambers and valves (inner layer)
attached to visceral pericardial layer (outer layer).
____ thin walled structures that act as reservoirs for blood returning to the heart
Left and Right Atrium
20-30% of ventricular filling
_____ allows blood flow through the LA and LV during atrial contraction. aka Bicuspid Valve
_____ allows blood flow between the RA and the RV during atrial contraction.
_____ valve allows venous blood from the RV to be pushed into the pulmonary artery.
_____ valve allows oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to be pushed into the aorta.
Coronary arteries are formed in a slight dilation known as the _____. These are filled during ventricular diastole.
Sinus of Valsalva.
In _____ of population, the RCA is dominant and supplies part of the LV and the ventricular septum
Major branches of coronary circulation
posterior descending and marginal
____ is known as the pacemaker of the heart and has 60-100 paces
AV Node has ____ paces
Bundle of HIS ____ paces
stroke volume X heart rate
Two phases of the cardiac cycle
Systole and Diastole
Ventricles contract, ejecting blood from the left ventricle in to the aorta and from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
Ventricles dilate, thereby moving blood from the atria to the ventricles.
Excess in base, the respiratory system decreases the rate and depth of respiration to conserve carbon dioxide
Excess acid retention, the rate and depth of respiration increases to blow off excess carbon dioxide, which reduces the amount available to make carbonic acid
HYPERventilation is caused by
HYPOventilation is caused by
over most of lung (I > E)
suprasternal areas between scapula (I = E)
over trachea (E >I)
gastric bubble on left
upper border of left RMCL (liver)
3rd to 5th LICS of sternum
anterior lung fields
High pitched sounds heard best with
Low pitched sounds heard best with the
heard loudest at the apex
heard loudest at the base