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71 terms

Exercise 26

Blood Components and Blood Tests
STUDY
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plasma
clear, straw-colored liquid
formed elements
dark-red buff-colored portions; RBCs, WBCs, platelets
erythrocytes
RBCs
leukocytes
WBCs
thrombocytes
platelets
serum
plasma minus clotting proteins, watery fluid
anucleate
without a nucleus
hemoglobin
large molecules used to transport oxygen/carbon dioxide in the blood
heme
red pigment that gives blood its color; contained in hemoglobin
polycythemia
abnormally high # of RBCs
anemia
abnormally low # of RBCs
leukocytes
larger, attack pathogens
granular
in cytoplasm that can be seen after staining (neutrophils, eosinophils)
megakaryocytes
large multi-nuclear cells that form platelets in red bone marrow
thrombocytopenia
a deficiency in the number of circulating platelets
erythrocytes
most numerous; small, pinkish cells
antigen
substance that is able to produce an immune response and will react with a specific antibody
antibodies
plasma proteins that combine with a specific antigen to inhabit or destroy it
agglutinate
clump
Rh+
when you have Rh antigens as a surface membrane molecule
Rh-
when you have no Rh antigens as a surface membrane molecule
hemolytic disease of the newborn
subsequent pregnancies with Rh+ fetuses can result in small Rh antibodies crossing the placenta and causing hemolysis in the fetuses' blood
antisera
artificial serum or serum from an animal/human containing antibodies against A,B,Rh antigens
serum
blood plasma without clotting proteins
complete blood count
vital diagnostic tool; screens for abnormalities in the number or structure of formed elements
differential WBC count
performed to determine the percentage of the five types of WBCs in a blood sample
hematocrit
determines the volume of RBCs described as the percentage of RBCs in a whole blood sample
38-46%
normal hematocrit range for females
40-54%
normal hematocrit rangw for males
polycythemia
abnormally high hematocrit (65%^)
anemia
when RBCs are below the normal level
cogulation
process of blood clotting that prevents excessive blood loss
fibrin
long, insoluble thread-like protein strand that forms a mesh to trap platelets
2-6 minutes
normal clotting time
RBCs
no nucleus
Neutrophils
multilobed nucleus with 2-5 or more lobes connected by threads
Eosinophils
bilobed nucleus (occasionally 3 lobes)
Basophils
nucleus is large, varied in shape; generally obscured by large granules
Lymphocytes
Large, round, or slightly indented nucleus that stains very dark purple
Monocytes
Large kidney bean or horseshoe shaped lacy nucleus; sometimes oval and indented
Platelets
No nucleus
RBCs
the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying cell
leukocytes
help the body fight infections and foreign substances; another name for wbc
Platelets
form a clot to help the body stop bleeding
erythrocytes
another name for rbcs
thrombocytes
another name for platelets
megakaryocytes
large cells that develop into platelets
anemia
a deficiency in number of rbis or decreased hemoglobin content of blood
polycythemia
an abnormal increase in rbcs
leukocytosis
an abnormal increase in wbcs
leukopenia
a deficiency in wbcs
thrombocytopenia
a deficiency in platelets
neutrophil
60-70% of all wbcs
eosinophil
2-4% of all wbcs
basophil
.5-1% of all wbcs
lymphocyte
20-25% of all wbcs
monocyte
3-8% of all wbcs
PMN
abbreviation for polymorphonuclear leukocytes
PMN & segs
nicknames for neutrophils
granulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
agranulocytes
lymphocytes, monocytes
most numerous leukocyte
neutrophil
least numerous leukocyte
basophil
universal donor
O because it doesn't contain any antigens so the antibodies cannot attack the foreign antigens
universal recipient
AB because is has neither A or B antibodies so they do not attack any antigen
How much blood do we have?
5.5 L (1.5 gallons)
What are the functions of blood?
-carries oxygen, nutrients and hormones to body tissues
-transports carbon dioxide, heat and metabolic wastes away from body tissues
-regulates pH, body temperature, and cell water content
-provides protection from blood loss through clotting and against disease through phagocytic wbc and antibodies
What is the percentage of plasma in blood?
55%; water (91.5%), solutes (8.5%)
What is the percentage of rbc in blood?
45%
Granular
appears "grainy"; BEN
Agranular
lymphocytes & monocytes