AWH Chapter 4 Guided Reading, Section Summary, Main Idea Questions, and Assessments
Terms in this set (47)
When did Queen Ahhotep rule and what were her achievements?
She reigned around 1600 B.C. and she helped drive the Hyksos out of Egypt after taking over for her dead husband.
When did Hatshepsut rule and what were her achievements?
She ruled around 1472 B.C. She encouraged trade and send a successful trade mission to Punt that brought back gold, ivory, plants, and animals.
When did Thutmose III rule and what were his achievements?
He ruled around 1450 B.C. He expanded the empire into Nubia and led invasions into Canaan and Syria.
How did the New Kingdom of Egypt become so powerful and wealthy?
When it overtook new cultures, it used their resources and wealth to its advantage.
Explain the relationship between Egypt and Nubia.
The Egyptians conquered Nubia and influenced their culture. Nubians later overtook Egypt and adopted and protected the Egyptian culture.
How did Egypt fall to the Hyksos?
The Hyksos used charoits, unknown the the Egyptians, to cross the desert into Egypt.
What role did geography play in Egypt's rise and fall?
They were able to trade and gain new resources because of the Nile, but their desert was easy to travel across using chariots, causing them to be overtook by the Hyksos and other invasions.
Who invaded Egypt?
The Sea People invaded Egypt along with the Libyans.
When did Libyan pharaohs rule and what were their achievements?
They ruled around 950-730 B.C. They adopted Egyptian culture and erected new cities.
How did the Kushites view Egyptian culture?
They felt they had to protect the culture and restore its glory.
What cultural aspects of Egyptian civilization did the Kushites adopt?
They have similar pyramids, except Kush pyramids have a flat top. They also have statues that resemble Egyptian statues but with Nubian faces.
Why was Meroe important?
Meroe was a central trading center for iron weapons and tools.
What were some of the political and economic effects of Egypt's conquests?
Other cultures gave Egypt new ideas and material goods. They gave them wealth from their resources.
Why might the Kushites have viewed themselves as guardians of Egyptian values?
The Egyptians influenced much of their culture, making the Kush culture very similar to the Egyptians. They probably felt the need to protect the culture since it was so much like their own.
How did the Kushites treat Egyptian culture after they conquered Egypt?
They adopted the culture and its values.
When did Piankhi rule and what were his achievements?
He ruled in 751 B.C. He united the entire Nile river valley from the delta to north of Napata.
When did Kush experience a golden age?
They experienced a golden age after being forced out of Egypt by the Assyrians and they moved to Meroe.
Why was Kush able to thrive after losing Egypt to the Assyrians?
Kush found a city called Meroe that was located in the perfect area to be a trading area for the Red Sea, making the Kush very wealthy.
Explain the Assyrians' weapons and equipment.
They wore leather and metal armor, had iron tipped spears, and iron swords.
Explain the Assyrians' military tactics.
They dug under city walls to make them weaker and used pontoons to cross deep water. They fought side by side.
Explain the Assyrians' method of governing.
Each area was individually governed and the governor reported back to the king. They had taxes and tribute.
Explain the Assyrians' culture.
They were great builders. King Ashurbanipal created a library with over 20,000 clay tablets with a catalog system.
What made the Assyrians such a strong fighting force?
The land was flat and let to many attacks.
How did Assyria acquire its empire?
They used strong military weapons, armor, and tactics to conquer and destroy cities, taking their land.
Besides conquering other people, what did the Assyrians accomplish?
The Assyrians built Nineveh, a large, walled city. They also created a large, modern library filled with clay tablets.
Who were the Chaldeans?
The Chaldeans were a civilization who helped overthrow the Assyrians and rebuild Babylon. Their king was Nebuchadnezzar.
Why did the people in the region rejoice when the Assyrian Empire was defeated?
The Assyrian Empire was harsh and exiled the people in conquered cities and destroyed their city.
What made Cyrus a great leader?
Cyrus was respectful to conquered areas and their culture. He didn't allow looting or burning.
Who was Cambyses?
Cyrus' son who destroyed the Egyptian religion. He conquered many new territories.
Who was Darius?
A ruler who expanded the empire. He created metal coins and the Royal Road.
What methods and tools did Darius use to hold together his empire?
Darius created a road to quickly communicate through the different provinces. He also created a universal coin to be used in all provinces.
How did Darius change Persia?
Darius united Persia by creating metal coins and a trade route called the Royal Road.
How far did Darius expand the Persian Empire?
He expanded into India, Anatolia, Afghanistan and Egypt, but he never conquered Greece.
What mark did the Persians leave on history?
The Persians brought order and were respectful to other cultures.
Who was Zoroaster?
A prophet who searched for the answer to all suffering. He is the founder of Zoroastrianism.
What did Zoroaster teach?
He taught that everybody struggled with the battle for good and evil. Ahura Mazda will judge you based on how well you fought the battle for good.
What ideas and world view did Zoroastrianism share with other religions?
It shared the idea of Satan and the belief in angels.
Who founded Confucianism and what were the ideas about social order and government?
Confucianism was founded by Confucius, an influential scholar. He believed in relationships and respect for your family. He though education was important and key for career advancement.
Around what five basic relationships did Confucius believe society should be organized?
He organized society around 1. ruler and subject 2. father and son 3. husband and wife 4. older brother and younger brother 5. friend and friend
How did Confucius try to restore ancient Chinese values?
Confucius tried to create family relationships and stress the importance of education.
Who founded Daoism and what were the ideas about order and harmony and universal force?
Daoism was founded by Laozi and believed in natural order and the understanding of nature. They believe that there is a universal force called "The Way" which guides all things.
Who founded Legalism and what were their ideas about social order and government?
Legalism was founded by Hanfeizi and Li Si. They believed in the use of punishments and law to create order. They though government had to be powerful and people needed to obey it.
How did the Legalists think that a society could be made to run well?
They thought that strict punishments and laws would make a society run well.
What was the basic purpose of all these ethical systems?
The purpose was to restore order and harmony to China.
Name to changes that Shi Huangdi made.
He doubled the size of China and created the Great Wall.
What measures did Shi Huangdi take to crush political opposition at home?
He moved all nobles to the capital to watch them and burned books with Confucius' ideas and others who disagreed with Legalism.
What were the positive and negative effects of Shi Huangdi's rule?
He unified China through standards of writing, measurements, currency, etc. and build a large wall to defend China. The building of the wall caused many deaths and there was harsh taxation and a repressive government.