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aggressively building up a nation's armed forces to prep for war; military over government


readying of troops for war

Central Power

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire


Russia, France, Serbia, Great Britain, US


situation where neither side in a conflict is able to gain the advantage


ruler with unlimited power


information intended to sway public opinion


German submarine

Sussex pledge

pledge by German gov't that submarines would warn ships before attacking

Zimmermann note

telegram sent by Germany to Mexico proposing alliance and promising US territory if Mexico declared war on US

Russian Revolution

collapse of czar's govt >> monarchy replaced with republican

Selective Service Act

law passed authorizing draft of young men for military service in WWI

American Expeditionary Force

American troops in Europe during WWI


group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of armed naval vessels


German floating airship (blimp)


cease-fire or truce


organized killing of an entire people

Liberty Bond

special war bond sold by the government to support the Allied cause during WWI

price controls

system of pricing determined by the government


distribution of goods to consumers in a fixed amount


any speech or action that encourages rebellion


citizen who takes the law into his/her own hands

Fourteen Points

Wilson's proposal for Europe peace (postwar) >> self-determination, freedom of nations, territories/borders changed, warfare ending, peace, League of Nations


the power to make decisions about one's own future


rewards gained through military victory

League of Nations

international organization formed after WWI that aimed to ensure security and peace for all its members


payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war

Versailles Treaty

1919 treaty that ended WWI

European neutrality

no favor of a country that would win/lose war so it was okay to send everything but troops

US neutrality

anyone involved in war should be treated equally

US enters war- economics

debt paid if England and France won, trading stimulated economy


materials of war provided by a neutral nation to a belligerent


nation fighting in a war


sealing off place to prevent goods or people for entering/leaving


taking away contraband from neutral nation

Espionage Act

outlawed freedom to disagree and speech, crime to be disloyal to US

No Conscription League

against Espionage Act

Sedition Act of 1918

criminalized opposition to the war and speech against US gov't and constitution

shell shock

aftershock and aftermath of war on a nation


passenger ship carrying secret contraband, 1200+ died

Massacre of the Innocence

young German men enlisted who died in first few weeks

European immigration effect

war cut off >> resulted in loss of workers in factories >> Black workers considered

goals for Paris Peace- England

protect airspace, get Germany's sphere, reparations

goals for Paris Peace- France

punish Germany, no re-arming of Central Powers, land returned by Germany, reparation, control German resources, get Germany's sphere

goals for Paris Peace- Belgium

land returned by Germany, promise to honor neutrality, get part of Ruhr Valley, reparations, get Germany's African colonies

goals for Paris Peace- Japan

keep control over spheres, more trade influence in Europe, get Philippines, get Hawaii, more markets for trade, reparations, get Germany's sphere

goals for Paris Peace- US

German reparations, A-H reparations, England/France/Belgium loans paid back, greater influence in world, resources, 14 Points

Wilson's "firsts"

went to Europe and directly delivered treaty in person


amend Fourteen Points but wanted NO League (Sen. Lodge)


wanted NO Treaty (Sen. Borah)

total war

warfare changed forever >> all nations energy directed to war

Schieffen Plan

Germany's 42-day war plan


outrageous acts committed to citizens in war (murder, rape) >> committed in Belgium by Germany


people signed up for war w/ friends and throughout would be stuck together >> resulted in gaps and holes in generations


British soldier

Trench Warfare

idea to outlast enemy in trenches


first gas attack, German attacked english

methods of communication

carrier pigeons, motorcycle/horse messengers, signal lights, field telephones

big Bertha

biggest German gun, only transportable by rail

German gases

chlorine, mustard, phosgene

Red Baron

greatest British Ace

Eddie Rickenbacker

greatest US Ace

Jeannette Rankin

first woman elected to Congress

Point 1

no secret treaties

Point 2

freedom of seas

Point 3

free trade among signers

Point 4

arms reduction

Point 5

self-determination for colonized peoples, equality

Point 6

self determination for new Russia, withdrawal of allied troops

Point 7

Belgium neutrality

Point 8

Alsace-Lorriane returned

Point 9

Tyrol and Trieste to Italy

Point 10

equality for colonized people

Point 11

Serbian access to the sea

Point 12

passage through Dardanelles

Point 13

independence of Poland

Point 14

League of Nations


treaty signed by Russia to end war

Treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and of Trianon

ended A-H empire >> regions lost and A-H territory reduced

Whistle Stop Tour

Wilson's direct appeal to the people by going around US and making speeches

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