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80 terms

Unit 6: World War I

STUDY
PLAY
militarism
aggressively building up a nation's armed forces to prep for war; military over government
mobilization
readying of troops for war
Central Power
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Allies
Russia, France, Serbia, Great Britain, US
stalemate
situation where neither side in a conflict is able to gain the advantage
autocrat
ruler with unlimited power
propaganda
information intended to sway public opinion
u-boat
German submarine
Sussex pledge
pledge by German gov't that submarines would warn ships before attacking
Zimmermann note
telegram sent by Germany to Mexico proposing alliance and promising US territory if Mexico declared war on US
Russian Revolution
collapse of czar's govt >> monarchy replaced with republican
Selective Service Act
law passed authorizing draft of young men for military service in WWI
American Expeditionary Force
American troops in Europe during WWI
convoy
group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of armed naval vessels
zeppelin
German floating airship (blimp)
armistice
cease-fire or truce
genocide
organized killing of an entire people
Liberty Bond
special war bond sold by the government to support the Allied cause during WWI
price controls
system of pricing determined by the government
rationing
distribution of goods to consumers in a fixed amount
sedition
any speech or action that encourages rebellion
vigilante
citizen who takes the law into his/her own hands
Fourteen Points
Wilson's proposal for Europe peace (postwar) >> self-determination, freedom of nations, territories/borders changed, warfare ending, peace, League of Nations
self-determination
the power to make decisions about one's own future
spoils
rewards gained through military victory
League of Nations
international organization formed after WWI that aimed to ensure security and peace for all its members
reparations
payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war
Versailles Treaty
1919 treaty that ended WWI
European neutrality
no favor of a country that would win/lose war so it was okay to send everything but troops
US neutrality
anyone involved in war should be treated equally
US enters war- economics
debt paid if England and France won, trading stimulated economy
contraband
materials of war provided by a neutral nation to a belligerent
belligerent
nation fighting in a war
blockade
sealing off place to prevent goods or people for entering/leaving
confiscation
taking away contraband from neutral nation
Espionage Act
outlawed freedom to disagree and speech, crime to be disloyal to US
No Conscription League
against Espionage Act
Sedition Act of 1918
criminalized opposition to the war and speech against US gov't and constitution
shell shock
aftershock and aftermath of war on a nation
Lusitania
passenger ship carrying secret contraband, 1200+ died
Massacre of the Innocence
young German men enlisted who died in first few weeks
European immigration effect
war cut off >> resulted in loss of workers in factories >> Black workers considered
goals for Paris Peace- England
protect airspace, get Germany's sphere, reparations
goals for Paris Peace- France
punish Germany, no re-arming of Central Powers, land returned by Germany, reparation, control German resources, get Germany's sphere
goals for Paris Peace- Belgium
land returned by Germany, promise to honor neutrality, get part of Ruhr Valley, reparations, get Germany's African colonies
goals for Paris Peace- Japan
keep control over spheres, more trade influence in Europe, get Philippines, get Hawaii, more markets for trade, reparations, get Germany's sphere
goals for Paris Peace- US
German reparations, A-H reparations, England/France/Belgium loans paid back, greater influence in world, resources, 14 Points
Wilson's "firsts"
went to Europe and directly delivered treaty in person
Reservationists
amend Fourteen Points but wanted NO League (Sen. Lodge)
Irreconcilable
wanted NO Treaty (Sen. Borah)
total war
warfare changed forever >> all nations energy directed to war
Schieffen Plan
Germany's 42-day war plan
atrocities
outrageous acts committed to citizens in war (murder, rape) >> committed in Belgium by Germany
pals
people signed up for war w/ friends and throughout would be stuck together >> resulted in gaps and holes in generations
tommy
British soldier
Trench Warfare
idea to outlast enemy in trenches
Ypres
first gas attack, German attacked english
methods of communication
carrier pigeons, motorcycle/horse messengers, signal lights, field telephones
big Bertha
biggest German gun, only transportable by rail
German gases
chlorine, mustard, phosgene
Red Baron
greatest British Ace
Eddie Rickenbacker
greatest US Ace
Jeannette Rankin
first woman elected to Congress
Point 1
no secret treaties
Point 2
freedom of seas
Point 3
free trade among signers
Point 4
arms reduction
Point 5
self-determination for colonized peoples, equality
Point 6
self determination for new Russia, withdrawal of allied troops
Point 7
Belgium neutrality
Point 8
Alsace-Lorriane returned
Point 9
Tyrol and Trieste to Italy
Point 10
equality for colonized people
Point 11
Serbian access to the sea
Point 12
passage through Dardanelles
Point 13
independence of Poland
Point 14
League of Nations
Brest-Litovsk
treaty signed by Russia to end war
Treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and of Trianon
ended A-H empire >> regions lost and A-H territory reduced
Whistle Stop Tour
Wilson's direct appeal to the people by going around US and making speeches