46 terms

USH Chapter 3-4 Study Guide

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Imperial Wars
France and Britain fought a century-long series of wars to determine who would be dominant in Western Europe. These caused fights along the frontiers of the colonies that involved the colonists and their Native American allies.
Worldwide Wars
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King William's War
the first in a series of colonial conflicts between France and England for supremacy in North America.
(1689-1697) Small war between French and English that were fought in Northern New England.
The English went on a expedition to capture Quebec but failed. French and Native Americans who supported the French attacked English settlements
Queen Anne's War
(1702-1713), second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French between 1689 and 1763. The wars were the result of the worldwide maritime and colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France and their struggle for predominance on the European and North American continents; each of the wars fought in North America corresponded more or less to a war fought between the same powers in Europe.
King George's War
1744 and 1748. England and Spain were in conflict with French. New England captured French Bastion at Louisburg on Cape Brenton Island. Had to abandon it once peace treaty ended conflict.
French and Indian War/Seven Years War/Date
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
A war fought between the British and French over land and fur trade. The Indians and the French were allies. The British won this war without firing a single shot.
Albany Congress
A conference in the United States Colonial history form June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French
Urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. Drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Peace of Paris 1763
Ended the Seven Year's War, France had to abandon all claim to North America; Great Britain received Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi Valley, Spain got back the Philippine Islands and Cuba, but had to cede East and West Florida to England
Effects of War-British View
o Britain spent a huge amount of money fighting the Revolutionary War, increasing national debt
o The trade which Britain relied on for wealth was severely interrupted
o thousands of merchant ships were captured
o On the other hand, wartime industry such as the naval suppliers or the elements of the textile industry which made uniforms experienced a boost,
o and unemployment fell as Britain struggled to find enough men for the army, a situation which would cause them to hire German soldiers
o Britain the failure of theAmerican Revolutionary War led to demands for constitutional reform
Effects of War-Colonists View
o The Treaty of Paris was signed in Paris, France on September 3, 1783. This ended the American Revolutionary War, and gave the colonies their independence from Great Britain.
o The 13 states were now free to join together and become the United States of America. They could now form their own government and make their own laws.
o This freedom was the most important effect of the American Revolution. New ideas like those expressed in the Declaration of Independence were now allowed to spread and grow in the new country.
o the Revolution saw the dawn of an organized abolitionist movement
o English traditions such as land inheritance laws were swept away almost immediately. The Anglican Church in America could no longer survive. After all, the official head of the Church of England was the British monarch. States experimented with republican ideas when drafting their own constitutions during the war
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
• The Sugar Act (1764) lowered the duty on foreign-produced molasses as an attempt to discourage colonial smuggling. The act further stipulated that Americans could export many commodities - including lumber, iron, skins, and whalebone - to foreign countries only if the goods passed through British ports first. The terms of the act and its methods of enforcement outraged many colonists.
Currency Act
restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver)
made it illegal to print paper money in the colonies
British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
Stamp Act
An act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
(1765) Part of Grenville's plan to defray the cost of maintaining the British army along the American frontier. Revenue stamps were attached to printed matter and legal documents, newspapers, and insurance papers etc. For the colonists the main issue was "no taxation without representation." Public protests increased until it was repealed in 1766.
Quartering Act
1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
a cost-saving measure that required the colonies to house British soldiers and provide them with supplies
Declaratory Act
After repealing the Stamp Act, Parliament issued the Declaratory Act. It asserted Parliament's full right to make laws "to bind the colonies and people of America...in all cases whatsoever"
Townshend Acts
A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
In 1767 "Champagne Charley" Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Tea Act
1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Coercive or Intolerable Acts
Laws meant to hurt the people of Boston in response to the Boston Tea Party. Boston harbor was closed, town meetings were banned, and colonists had to let British soldiers stay in their homes
harsh acts that closed the Boston port, declared British officials accused of crimes to be put on trial in England; also it sent more British troops to Boston
Quebec Act
1744, law passed by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party, Expanded the borders of Canada, took land away from the colonies and gave it to Quebec, tried to take away colonies local self-rights
Nonimportation response
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The Association
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Organizations that led protests, helped American soldiers, instated a boycott, and generally resisted the British.
They enforced the nonimportation agreements against violators, often by tarring and feathering them.
Male and female organizations made up of a network of lawyers, merchants, tradesmen, and other townspeople organized colonial protests against British regulations.
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter
Boston Tea Party
Demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor because the company was not being taxed to sell tea, but the colonial tea sellers were.
Lexington and Concord
"The Shot Heard Round the World"- The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Bunker Hill
(June 17, 1775) Site of a battle early in the Revolutionary War. This battle contested control of two hills (Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill) overlooking Boston Harbor. The British captured the hills after the Americans ran-out of ammunition. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" Battle implied that Americans could fight the British if they had sufficient supplies.
Fought on the outskirts of Boston, on Breed's Hill, the battle ended in the colonial militia's retreat, though at a heavy cost to the British
Saratoga
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
After this battle, British wanted the war to end peacefully. Offered to repeal all the acts they had made, but the colonists rejected them
Yorktown
1781; last battle of the revolution; Benedict Arnold, Cornwallis and Washington; colonists won because British were surrounded and they surrended
Battle at which Cornwallis surrendered to Washington
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
A gathering of colonial leaders who were deeply troubled about the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies in America.
Second Continental Congress
Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Letter sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III in 1775 in an attempt to avoid war
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
Drafted by T. Jefferson declaring America's separation from Great Britain (3 parts-New theory of government, reasons for separation, formal declaration of war and independence)
Whigs
Patriots
Tories
The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.
Another name for Loyalists
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
George Washington
commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Poor Richard's Almanac
During the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin served as an ambassador to France. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. Franklin has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States , He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Patrick Henry
"I know not what courses others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death" From a speech to the Virginia House of Delegates to convince them to support the fight for independence.
A member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who persuaded the burgesses to take action against the Stamp Act.
John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Samuel Adams
American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
John Hancock
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
"King of the Smugglers." A wealthy Boston merchant who defied the mercantilist system and the Navigation Acts. He was one of the leaders of the Sons of Liberty. He was a leader in the plot to store gunpowder in Lexington and Concord. He signed it really big and made the comment, "So Fat George in London can read it without his spectacles!"