AP Bio: Animal Behavior

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Behavior
Behavior is everything an animal does and how it does it in response to an internal or external stimulus
What are animal behaviors vital to?
Reproduction, natural selection, and survival
What chemical signals an animal behavior?
Epinephrine--circulates through body initiating fight of flight
Examples of this human behavior?
Shivering and sweating
How do organisms respond to their environment?
In behavioral and physiological mechanisms
Example of organisms responding to environment?
Migration of monarch butterflies
What are the two types of behaviors?
Innate or learned
Innate behavior
What does this mean for the species?
Behavior that is genetically fixed
Same in all members of the species
Why is innate behavior important?
1. May be no opportunities to learn
2. Mistakes can lose life--avoiding predators
3. Potential mates must be identified
Example of innate behavior?
Specific?
3 Major examples?
Fly emerge from pupation and mate right away--know to do so because they die quickly
Hibernation, Migration, Reproduction
Complex innate behavior
Migration is one
Fixed Action Patterns
Sequence of behaviors usually conducted to completion once started
What are Fixed Action Patterns resistant to?
Triggers?
Modification by learning
Releaser: simple stimulus that triggers a FAP
Example of FAP?
1. Female geese will always go after the egg in the same motion--even when the egg is too far away
2. Male Sticklebacks (fish) aggressive territoriality
How do we know innate behaviors exist?
Gene mutation and Deprivation experiments
Gene mutation (examples in flies)
per mutation: alters fly rhythm (cannot do courting dance properly)
fru mutation: results in the inability to discriminate between males and females
Deprivation
Raise organism in isolation
Example of deprivation
Harry harlow
Monkeys preferred cloth mother over metal one despite lack of food---genetics knew it wanted fur comfort
Gene knockouts
Mutation inactivated a gene
Learned Behavior
Ability to learn is inherited, but the behavior develops during an organisms lifetime
4 Kinds of learning behaviors
Classical Conditioning
Habitutation
Operant Conditioning
Imprinting Behavior
Classical Conditioning
Example:
Animals associate one stimulus with another
Example: salivating at the sight of food
Habituation
What does this enable animals to do?
Example
Response to stimulus decreased when it is repeated with no apparent effect
Disregard certain stimuli
Falling leaves lack response from birds
Operant Conditioning
Trial and error
Voluntary behavior in future modified by consequences of past behavior
4 kinds of Operant conditioning?
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment
Positive Reinforcement
Give something Good
ex: dog gets treat when he doesnt jump
Negative Reinforcement
Take away something Bad
ex: stop hitting dog when he doesnt jump
Positive Punishment
Give something bad
ex: hit dog when he jumps
Negative Punishment
Take away something good
ex: stop giving him attention when he jumps
Example of operant conditioning
Skinners box
Mouse learns to touch lever to get food
Nature and nurture do what?
Influence the behavior of organisms
Nature
Genetic programming
Nurture
learned behavior
What does natural selection favor in terms of behavior?
Favors innate and learned behavior that increases survival and fitness
Critical period
Time an organism has the ability to learn a set of stimuli
Example of critical period?
First person geese see is their mother --- sees scientiest, follows him
Phototropism
Growth towards light with stem and leaves oriented towards max photosynthesis
Photoperiodism
Changes in the length of night regulate flowering and preparation for winter
What is the plant hormone that causes cells to lengthen?
Auxin
What happens with auxin and the movement of sunlight?
Auxin moves away causing cells to get larger, stem bends toward light
Circadian Rhythms
Physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24 hour cycle
What do circadian rhythms respond to?
light and darkness in an organisms environment
5 forms of social behaviors?
1. Communication/language
2. Agnostic behaviors
3. Dominance hierarchy
4. Cooperation
5. Altruistic behavior
Communication
Example?
organisms ability to exchange information--allows change in behavior
Territorial marking
How do signals affect the behavior of other organisms?
Causing differential reproductive success
SIgnals
What animals use to indicate dominance, find food, establish territory, etc.
Types of signals
Visual
Audible
Tactile
Electrical
Chemical
Visual Pros and cons
Pros: convey position and physicality of signaler
Cons: Requires light and must be looking at signaler
Example of visual
fireflies flashing light at night
Auditory (pros/cons)
Pros: can be in dark, travel far, receivers attention is not needed
Cons: does not convey complex info
Auditory example
bird song: male singing tells of sex and reproductive condition
Tactile signals
Movement and touching
Example of tactile
Bee wiggle dance
Angle and duration of dance tells distance from food source
Electrical
Animals send signals through water to determine info about environment or for communication
Example of electrical
Sharks have electroreceptors that are used to detect objects
Chemical signals (what is it)
Pheremones: chemical signals that stimulare a response from individual
Example of a pheremone
Territorial marking or
Substances make fish try to mate with area
How can communications influence behavior differently?
Example?
Some behaviors require multiple signals
Example: courtship in flies requires tactile, chemical, visual, and auditory
Agnostic behavior
Threatening and submissive rituals
What are agnostic behaviors used for?
Examples?
Mostly symbolic--no harm
Territoriality and competitor aggression
Dominance hierachy
social ranking within a group
(Pecking order for chimps)
Cooperative behavior
Working together in coordination
Cooperative behaviors effects on individual and population?
Individual: increase fitness
Population: increase survival
Example of cooperative behavior?
Pack of african dogs hunting wildebeest together
Positives of group living
1. Improved foraging (hunting in packs)
2. Protection and defense
3. Reduce risk of being prey (predator warnings)
4. Rich learning environment
Negatives of group living
1. Reduce amount of food
2. More competition
3. Higher rate of disease transmission
4. Interference with reproduction (infanticide due to hierarchy)
Altruism
Reduces individual fitness, but increases the fitness of the recipient
Kin selection
Increasing the survival of close relatives, passes genes to next generation
Example of altruism
Belding squirrels make calls to alert population of a predator