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Terms in this set (89)
what are biomes characterized by?
their climates, typical plant and animal life
what are biomes?
groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions
what are the 10 primary biomes?
1.) tropical rain forest
2.) tropical dry forest
5.) Temperate Rain Forest
6.) Temperate Forest
7.) Temperate Grassland
9.) Boreal Forest (Taiga Forest)
what is climate?
average conditions, including temperature and precipitation, over long periods of time in a given area
what is weather?
day-to-day conditions in Earth's atmosphere
what are climatographs?
diagrams that summarize an area's average monthly temperature and precipitation
patches of the same biome tend to occur at the same what?
what is this due to?
north-south temperature gradient and atmospheric circulation patterns
variations in biomes can be caused by what?
soil type, elevation, or wind exposure
biomes vary in their rates of what?
their net primary production
warm and wet biomes have the highest ____ and cold and dry have the lowest
net primary production
what is gross primary production?
the rate at which primary producers undergo photosynthesis
what is net primary production?
the amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respiration
what is net primary productivity?
the rate at which primary producers convert energy to biomass
where are the tropical rain forests found?
1.) central America
2.) South America
3.) Southeast Asia
4.) West Africa
how is the weather in the TRF?
year round warm; 2 meters of precipitation a year
how are the nutrients in the TRF?
soil is generally nutrient poor; nearly all nutrients are found in the trees, vines, and other plants
what is a canopy?
when tall trees form a dense covering; towers 50-80 meters above the ground
what are three things that support the variety of plants in the TRF?
forest canopy, emergent layer, and the understory
what makes up the understory of the TRF?
shorter trees and plants with large, flat leaves to get maximum light absorbtion
what makes up the emergent layer of the TRF?
the tallest trees and plants with large, flat leaves with shallow roots
what are buttresses?
bulges at the base of the trees that help stabilize them
what are lianas?
they grow on the forest floor, twisting around tree trunks to reach light higher in the canopy
what are epiphytes?
plants that grow on other plants, instead of soil
what are examples of epiphytes?
orchids, spanish moss
what biome supports more animal species than any other biome?
tropical rain forest (TRF)
why is it a challenge for plants to reproduce in the TRF?
very little wind to help spread pollen; rainforests have developed more elaborate flowers that are brightly colored and distinguishing smells to attract pollinators
what is an example of a flower that has a smell to attract pollinators?
corpse flower; smells like a rotting body
where are Tropical Dry Forests found?
in India, Southern North America, Central america, South America, and Southeast Asia
how is the weather in the TDF?
warm year-round; rainfall highly seasonal; have wet and dry seasons each about half the year
what is the monsoon?
extremely heavy rainfall during the wet season in TDF
what is another name for the TDF?
tropical deciduous forest; called this because trees are deciduous- lose their leaves and cease photosynthesis for part of the year
why is seasonal loss of leaves beneficial for plants?
prevents water loss
what adaptations do plants have to survive the dry season?
waxy leaf coating, deep roots, estivation, and migration
what does each adaptation do?
1.) waxy coating- prevents drying out
2.) deep roots- allow plants to seek water deeper in the ground
3.) estivation- deep sleep-like period of dormancy in animals similar to hibernation triggered by heat and dry conditions
what is the weather like in the temperate rain forests?
year-round moderate temperatures and heavy rainfall
where are temperate rain forests found?
large extent found in the Pacific Northwest of US
what kind of trees inhabit the temperate rain forests?
tall, evergreen trees, such as cedars, spruces, Douglas Fir, and hemlocks that don't lose leaves annually and are conifers
what are conifers?
trees that produce seeds; have needle-like leaves that are coated with thick waxy substance to prevent water loss
what biome has the tallest trees in the world?
the temperate rain forests
how is the forest floor of the temperate rain forest?
shaded, damp, and covered in moss; amphibians that require moisture live there
what is the weather like in the temperate forests?
precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year; varied temp. (hot summers, cold winters)
where are TF found?
Europe, eastern Asia, and eastern US
how are the plants in the TF?
tend to be broad-leafed and deciduous; oak, maple, and beech trees are common
animals do what during the cold season of the TF?
migrate, hibernate, or store food to survive
what animals migrate or hibernate in the TF?
birds migrate; black bear and certain snake species hibernate
animals that don't hibernate in the TF do what?
animals like deer mice and chipmunks build up fat reserves and hide food. white tailed deer and cottontail rabbits eat what's left
what is hibernation?
is a deep sleep-like state that an animal enters for most of the winter
where are boreal forests found?
across as mush of Canada, Alaska, Russia and Scandinavia
what is the weather like in the BF?
develop in cooler, dry places; long, cold winters; short, cool summers
what is another name for the boreal forest?
what kind of coniferous trees live in the BF?
Boreal animals include what?
animals such as moose, wolves, bears, lynx, and burrowing rodents called lemmings
what are examples of animals that change color in the winter to avoid predation?
artic fox, snowshoe hare
what are the driest biomes on earth?
derserts; where evaporation exceeds precipitation
how much rainfall do deserts get?
less than 25cm per year
rainfall determines what?
what kind of animals live there and what kind of vegetation it can support
where is the Sonoran desert found?
in Arizona and Mexico; most diversity of plants
the Sahara and Mamiv are mostly what?
bare sand dunes
what is the precipitation like in the Gobi Desert?
falls as snow; bactrian camels live there
what adaptations do plants have in the deserts?
thick, leathery leaves that store water in their tissues, and have shallow roots
what are the adaptations for animals in the deserts?
get most of water from food they eat; tend to be nocturnal; some regulate body temperatures and tend to be small
what is precipitation like in the Savanna?
receives less than tropical dry forests but more than deserts
what is another name for the Savanna?
where are Savannas found?
in Africa, Serengeti, South America, Australia, and other dry regions
how are the plant and tree adaptations in the Savanna?
plants are deciduous and trees growth is limited due to frequent fires and strong winds; have thick bark to protect tissues
what do animals in the Savanna do to find water?
migrate or burrow when water is scarce
what animals burrow for water and how much do they need?
elephants; need 30 to 50 gallons a day
what kind of animals are found in the Savanna?
gazelle, giraffes, and wildebeests
what are temperate grasslands also called?
prairies, veldt, pampas, or steppes
what is the weather like in TG?
seasonal precipitation with fairly extreme seasonal temp.; droughts and fires common; soil is rich in nutrients
where are TG found?
used to cover most of US
most of the world's grassland have been converted to what?
what is the weather like in the chaparral?
highly seasonal conditions with wet winters and warm, dry summers
where are chaparrals found?
near oceans, around Mediterranean sea, coast of California, south Australia, south Africa
what are in adaptation of plants in the chaparral?
drought-resistant; have thick, waxy leaves or leaves with hair; thick bark and deep roots to resist fire; some plants require fire to germinate
what kind of plants are in the chaparral?
shrubs, olive trees, and blue oaks
what kind of animals are nocturnal in the chaparral?
pocket mouse and geckos
what kind of animals use their ears to radiate heat in the chaparral?
jack rabbits and elephants
what is the weather in the tundra like?
extremely cold, dark winters; relatively sunny and cool summers, harsh winds, freezing temp
what are tundras found?
high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere like Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia
why is plant growth limited in the tundra?
permafrost- underground soil that is frozen year round; nutrient-poor soil
what is common in tundras?
mosses and lichens
what kinds of animals migrate to the tundra during the warm season?
birds and caribou to feed on insects and lichens
what animals stays in the tundra year round?
polar bears and musk oxen
what is considered not a biome?
polar ice and mountains
where is polar ice found?
no land under polar ice in Northern Hemisphere; ice sits on top Antarctica in Southern Hemisphere
how is the plant life in polar ice ranges?
very few; most life is in the surrounding ocean
mountain communities change with what?
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