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340 terms

Anatomy LVL 1 Overview

STUDY
PLAY
mouth closed
Which of the following in NOT an essential part of anatomical position?
feet together/feet flat on the floor?forearms supinated/mouth closed/arms down to the sides
transverse
A ring-shaped section of the small intestine would be a _______ section?
distal
The tarsal region is _____ to the popliteal region
superficial
The greater omentum is _____ to the small intestine.
midsaggital
A ____ line passes through the sternum, umbilicus, and mons pubis.
inguinal
The ____ region is imediately medial to the coxal region.
plantar
Which of the following regions is not part of the upper limb?
plantar/carpal/cubital/brachial/palmar
liver
Which of these roagns is within the peritoneal cavity?
urinary bladder/kidneys/heart/liver/brain
right upper quadrant
In which area do you think pain from the gallbladder would be felt?
urinary system
Which organ system regulates blood volume, controls acid-base balances and stimulares red blood cell production?
supinated
The forearm is said to be ___when the palms are facing inward.
parietal
The superficial layer of the pleura is called the _____ pleura.
mediastinum
The right and left pleural cavities are serperated by a thick wall called the ______
nuchal
The back of the neck is caled the ______
hand, foot
The manus is more commonly known as the ____ and the pes is more commonly know as ______
meninges
The cranial cavity is lined by membranes called the ________
retroperitoneal
Organs that lie within the abdominal cavity but not within the peritoneal cavity are said to have a _____ position.
medial
The sternal region is _____ to the pectoral region
inferior
The pelvic cavity can be described as ______to the abdominal cavity in position.
cubital, popiteal
The anterior pit of the ebow is the _____ region, and corresponding (but posterior) pit of the knee is the _______ region
Frontal
#1
Orbital
#2
Nasal
#3
Buccal
#4
Oral
#5
Mental
#6
Cephalic
#1-6
Cervical
#7
Sternal
#8
Auxillary
#9
Mammary
#10
Thoracic
#8-11
Acromial
#12
Brachial
#13
Antecubital
#14
Antebrachial
#15
Carpal
#16
Upper Limb
#12-16
Adbominal
#17
Umbilical
#18
Pelvic
#19
Inguinal
#20
Pubic
#21
Polex
#22
Palmar
#23
Digital
#24
Manus (Hand)
#22-24
Coxal
#25
Femoral
#26
Patellar
#27
Crural
#28
Fibular/Peroneal
#29
Lower Limb
#25-29
Tarsal
#30
Digital
#31
Hallux
#32
Pedal (Foot)
#30-32
Otic
#1
Occipital
#2
Cephalic
#1-2
Acromial
#3
Brachial
#4
Olecranial
#5
Antebrachial
#6
Upper Limb
#3-6
Vertebral
#7
Scapular
#8
Lumbar
#10
Sacral
#11
Dorsum
#7-11
Digital
#12
Gluteal
#13
Perineal
#14
Femoral
#15
Popliteal
#16
Sural
#17
Lower Limb
#15-17
Calcaneal
#18
Plantar
#19
Pedal (Foot)
#18-19
Right Hypochondriac Region
#1
Right Lumbar Region
#2
Right Inguinal Region
#3
Epigastric Region
#4
Umbilical Region
#5
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
#6
Left Hypochondriac Region
#7
Left Lumbar Region
#8
Left Inguinal Region
#9
TRUE
Positive feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus.
TRUE
Imaging is useful in discovering obstructed blood supplies in organs and tissues.
TRUE
The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body.
FALSE
The elbow is proximal to the shoulder.
FALSE
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral peritoneum.
TRUE
A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction.
FALSE
The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach.
TRUE
Lungs carry out an excretory function.
FALSE
Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception through old age.
TRUE
A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function.
TRUE
It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it.
TRUE
Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body chemistry in balance.
TRUE
Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components.
TRUE
The epigastric region is located superior to the umbilical region.
B) tissues
Histology would be best defined as a study of ________.
A) cells
B) tissues
C) cell chemistry
D) the gross structures of the body
B) gross
The study of the heart may incorporate many aspects of anatomy but as a whole you would say it is __________ anatomy.
A) microscopic
B) gross
C) developmental
D) systemic
B) excretion of metabolic waste
An increased rate of breathing as a result of an increased buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream would be best described as an example of ________.
A) maintaining boundaries
B) excretion of metabolic waste
C) responsiveness
D) metabolism
D) 37
Average body temperature is ________ degrees centigrade.
A) 98
B) 68
C) 47
D) 37
A) control center
If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat would be the ________.
A) control center
B) receptor
C) effector
D) variable
B) to maintain homeostasis
What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback?
A) to control all body system tissues
B) to maintain homeostasis
C) to keep the body's sugar high
D) to regulate excretion
D) coxal
What is the specific name for the hip region?
A) manus
B) inguinal
C) pedal
D) coxal
B) diagonally between the vertical and horizontal
An oblique cut is one that is cut ________.
A) horizontal right and left
B) diagonally between the vertical and horizontal
C) vertical right and left
D) perpendicular to vertical and horizontal
D) pericardial
The heart lies in the ________ cavity.
A) superior mediastinal
B) pleural
C) dorsal
D) pericardial
D) orbital
The cavities housing the eyes are called __________ cavities.
A) frontal
B) cranial
C) nasal
D) orbital
C) organ
A structure that is composed of two or more tissues would be a(n) ________.
A) complex tissue
B) organ system
C) organ
D) complex cell
B) Synovial
________ cavities are spaces within joints.
A) Nasal
B) Synovial
C) Orbital
D) Oral
D) decay
Which of the following would not be a functional characteristic of life?
A) movement
B) responsiveness to external stimuli
C) maintenance of boundaries
D) decay
D) dorsal
Which term means toward or at the back of the body, behind?
A) anterior
B) lateral
C) distal
D) dorsal
C) water
The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60% to 80% of body weight, is ________.
A) oxygen
B) protein
C) water
D) hydrogen
D) popliteal
What is the posterior side of the patella called?
A) sural
B) crural
C) antecubital
D) popliteal
C) Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.
Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms?
A) Positive feedback mechanisms always result in excessive damage to the host.
B) Negative feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus.
C) Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.
D) Blood glucose levels are regulated by positive feedback mechanisms.
C) palms turned posteriorly
The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except ________.
A) body erect
B) arms at sides
C) palms turned posteriorly
D) thumbs pointed laterally
C) enhancement of labor contractions
A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be ________.
A) body temperature regulation
B) regulating glucose levels in the blood
C) enhancement of labor contractions
D) blood calcium level regulation
C) any sagittal plane except the median
Which of the following describes a parasagittal plane?
A) a transverse cut just above the knees
B) two cuts dividing the body into left and right halves
C) any sagittal plane except the median
D) any cut dividing the body into anterior and posterior
D) intestines
Which of the following organs or structures would be found in the left iliac region?
A) appendix
B) stomach
C) liver
D) intestines
B) lining the thoracic cavity
The parietal pleural would represent a serous membrane ________.
A) covering individual lungs
B) lining the thoracic cavity
C) covering the heart
D) lining the abdominal cavity
D) nervous
Which one of the following systems responds to environmental stimuli?
A) muscular
B) lymphatic
C) immune
D) nervous
C) Cytology: study of the structures in a particular region.
Choose the anatomical topic and definition that is not correctly matched.
A) Gross anatomy: study of structures visible to the eye.
B) Microscopic anatomy: study of structures too small to be seen by the naked eye.
C) Cytology: study of the structures in a particular region.
D) Embryology: study of the changes in an individual from conception to birth.
B) a relatively stable internal environment, within limits
Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains ________.
A) the lowest possible energy usage
B) a relatively stable internal environment, within limits
C) a static state with no deviation from preset points
D) a dynamic state within an unlimited range
A) pleural, ventral, and thoracic
In which cavities are the lungs located?
A) pleural, ventral, and thoracic
B) mediastinum, thoracic, and ventral
C) pleural, dorsal, and abdominal
D) pericardial, ventral, and thoracic
C) Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart.
Choose the following statement that is not completely correct regarding serous membranes.
A) Serosa are very thin, double-layered structures.
B) Serous membranes are divided into parietal and visceral membranes with a potential space between the two.
C) Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart.
D) Serous membranes secrete a watery lubricating fluid.
B) 2-1-4-3-5
Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex:

1. molecules
2. atoms
3. tissues
4. cells
5. organ
A) 1-2-3-4-5
B) 2-1-4-3-5
C) 2-1-3-4-5
D) 1-2-4-3-5
D) MRI
Which of the following imaging devices would best localize a tumor in a person's brain?
A) X ray
B) DSA
C) PET
D) MRI
B) thoracic cavity
Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity?
A) cranial cavity
B) thoracic cavity
C) spinal cord
D) vertebral cavity
C) left upper
In which abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located?
A) right upper
B) right lower
C) left upper
D) left lower
A) It is considered the cause of most diseases.
Which of the following statements is the most correct regarding homeostatic imbalance?
A) It is considered the cause of most diseases.
B) The internal environment is becoming more stable.
C) Positive feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed.
D) Negative feedback mechanisms are functioning normally.
D) gross, regional, systemic, and surface
Subdivisions of anatomy include which of the following?
A) gross, macroscopic, visual, and microscopic
B) gross, regional, dissection, and surface
C) regional, surface, visual, and microscopic
D) gross, regional, systemic, and surface
D) thumb
The term pollex refers to the ________.
A) great toe
B) calf
C) fingers
D) thumb
B) brain
The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following?
A) intestines
B) brain
C) lungs
D) liver
A) The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system.
Select the most correct statement.
A) The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system.
B) Organ systems operate independently of each other to maintain life.
C) The endocrine system is not a true structural organ system.
D) Organ systems can be composed of cells or tissues, but not both.
B) sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
One of the functional characteristics of life is irritability. This refers to ________.
A) indigestible food residues stimulating the excretory system
B) sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
C) the nervous system causing all living things to sometimes experience anger
D) the necessity for all organisms to reproduce
D) nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen
Which of the following are survival needs of the body?
A) nutrients, water, movement, and reproduction
B) nutrients, water, growth, and reproduction
C) water, atmospheric pressure, growth, and movement
D) nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen
B) as a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the body
The anatomical position is used ________.
A) rarely, because people don't usually assume this position
B) as a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the body
C) only when a body is lying down
D) as the most comfortable way to stand when dissecting a specimen
C) sagittal
What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into left and right, called?
A) frontal
B) regional
C) sagittal
D) transverse
A) frontal
What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions called?
A) frontal
B) median
C) sagittal
D) transverse
B) dorsal
Which body cavity protects the nervous system?
A) cranial
B) dorsal
C) vertebral
D) thoracic
B) cardiovascular anatomy
Which of the following describes the operation of the heart and blood vessels?
A) systemic anatomy
B) cardiovascular anatomy
C) systemic physiology
D) cardiovascular physiology
tissues
Similar cells that have a common function are called ________.
olecranal
The term that describes the back of the elbow is ________.
calcaneal
The term that describes the heel region is ________.
proximal
The elbow is ________ to the wrist.
middle ear
The ________ cavity contains tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing in the inner ear.
Physiology
________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function of specific organs or organic systems.
homeostasis
What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed?
pelvic
Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum?
visceral
What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called?
Renal
________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function.
metabolism
What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells?
orbital
The five cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ________.
responsiveness or irritability
The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called ________.
water
What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body?
Directional Terms
allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another
Axial
fundamental division of our body. Makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck, and trunk.
Appendicular
fundamental division of our body. relating to the limbs and their attachments to the axis.
Regional Terms
used to designate specific areas within major body divisions
Abdominal
pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
Acromial
pertaining to the point of the shoulder
Antebrachial
pertaining to the forearm
Antecubital
pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
Axillary
pertaining to the armpit
Brachial
pertaining to the arm
Buccal
pertaining to the cheek
Carpal
Pertaining to the wrist
Cephalic
pertaining to the head
Cervical
pertaining to the neck region
Coxal
pertaining to the hip
Crural
pertaining to the leg
Digital
pertaining to the fingers or toes
Femoral
pertaining to the thigh
Fibular (peroneal)
pertaining to the side of the leg
Frontal
pertaining to the forehead
Hallux
pertaining to the great toe
Inguinal
pertaining to the groin
Mammary
pertaining to the breast
Manus
pertaining to the hand
Mental
pertaining to the chin
Nasal
pertaining to the nose
Oral
pertaining to the mouth
Orbital
pertaining to the eye socket (orbit)
Palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand
Patellar
pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region
Pedal
pertaining to the foot
Pelvic
pertaining to the pelvis region
Pollex
pertaining to the thumb
Pubic
pertaining to the genital region
Sternal
pertaining to the region of the breastbone
Tarsal
pertaining to the ankle
Thoracic
pertaining to the chest
Umbilical
pertaining to the navel
Acromial
pertaining to the point of the shoulder
Calcaneal
pertaining to the heel of the foot
Dorsum
pertaining to the back
Gluteal
pertaining to the buttocks or rump
Lumbar
pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
Occipital
pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
Otic
pertaining to the ear
Perineal
pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
Plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
Popliteal
pertaining to the back of the knee
Sacral
pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
Scapular
pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area
Sural
pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
Vertebral
pertaining to the area of the spinal column
Sagittal
a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
Median Plane (midsagittal plane)
sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
Parasagittal Planes
all other sagittal planes offset from the midline
Frontal Planes (Coronal Plane)
like sagittal plane lie vertically, divide body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse/Horizontal Plane
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
Cranial Cavity
in the skull, encases the brain
Thoracic Cavity
surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest
Pleural Cavities
lateral subdivision of Thoracic Cavity, enveloping a lung, and the Medial Mediastinum
Medial Mediastinum
contains the pericardial cavity
Pericardial Cavity
encloses the heart and also surrounds the the remaining thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea, and others)
Abdominopelvic Cavity
seperated from thoracic cavity by the diaphram, a dome shaped muscle important in breathing. Has abdominal and pelvic cavities
Abdominal Cavity
Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver, and other organs
Pelvic Cavity
Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Serosa (Serous Membrane)
the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by this thin double layered membrane
Parietal Serosa
lines internal body walls
Visceral Serosa
covers the internal organs
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Divisions used primarily by medical personnel
Abdominopelvic Regions
Nine divisions used primarily by anatomists
Anatomy
Study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.
Physiology
Concerns the function of the body, in other words, how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.
Gross Anatomy
The study of the structure of the body and its parts without the use of a microscope. Synonym: Macroscopic Anatomy.
Macroscopic Anatomy
The study of the structure of the body and its parts without the use of a microscope. Synonym: Gross Anatomy.
Systemic Anatomy
The study of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory systems
Surface Anatomy
The study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
Microscopic Anatomy
The study of microscopic structures of tissues and organs
Cytology
The branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells
Histology
The study of microscopic structure of animal or plant tissues.
Developmental Anatomy
The branch of anatomy that studies structural changes of an individual from fertilization to maturity.
Embryology
The branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms.
Renal Physiology
The study of the functions of the kidneys and urine production.
Neurophysiology
The branch of neuroscience that studies the physiology of the nervous system.
Cardiovascular Physiology
The study of functions of the heart and blood vessels.
Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function
What a structure can do depends on its specific form.
Chemical Level
The simplest level of the structural hierarchy. Includes atoms, the smallest units of matter, and molecules, two or more atoms joined together.
Cellular Level
Smallest structural and functional unit of the body.
Tissue Level
Groups of similar cells that have a common function.
Four Basic Tissue Types
Epithelium, muscle, connective, and nervous.
Organ
A discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (four is more common) that performs a specific function for the body.
Integumentary System
Organ system that includes har, skin, and nails and protects the body from pathogens and maintains homeostasis.
Skeletal System
Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movements.
Muscular System
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture, and produces heat.
Nervous System
As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
Endocrine System
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
Cardiovascular System
Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.
Lyphatic System/Immunity
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity.
Respiratory System
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
Digestive System
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells.
Urinary System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Reproductive System
Overall production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones.
Excretion
The process of removing wastes from the body.
Homeostasis
The ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes constantly.
Receptor
Temperature-sensitive cells in skin and brain. Some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes called stimuli, by sending information to the second component, the control center.
Control Center
Determines the set point of homeostasis, which is the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained.
Afferent Pathway
Pathway leaving the sensor and going to the control center.
Efferent Pathway
Pathway leaving the control center and going towards the Effector.
Effector
Provides the means for the control center's response (output) to the stimulus. From brain to body part.
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
Where the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces it's intensity. Ex: Thermoregulation
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Where the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated. Ex: Breast Milk
Homeostatic Imbalance
Disturbance of homeostasis or the body's normal equilibrium.
Anatomical Position
1 - Body erect, 2 - Feet slightly apart, 3 - Palms facing forward
Superior (cranial)
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above.
Inferior (caudal)
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below.
Ventral (anterior)
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of.
Dorsal (posterior)
Toward or at the back of the body; behind.
Medial
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.
Intermediate
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.
Proximal
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Distal
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Superficial (external)
Toward or at the body surface.
Deep (internal)
Away from the body surface; more internal.
Cephalic
Of or relating to the head. Frontal, Orbital, Nasal, Oral, Mental, Otic, & Occipital.
Cervical
Relating to or associated with the neck.
Abdominal
Of or relating to or near the abdomen. Umbilical.
Upper limb
Consists of the arm, forearm, and hand. Acromial, Brachial (arm), Antecubital Olecranal, Antebrachial (forearm), & Carpal (wrist).
Manus
Pertaining to the hand. Pollex, Metacarpal, Palmar, & Digital.
Lower limb
Coxal (hip), Femoral (thigh), Patellar, Popliteal, Crural (leg), Sural (calf), Fibular or peroneal.
Pedal (foot)
Tarsal (ankle), Calcaneal, Metatarsal, Digital, Plantar, Hallux (big toe).
Back (dorsal)
Scapular, Vertebral, Lumbar, Sacral, Gluteal, Perineal.
Pelvic
Inguinal (groin).
Plane
Flat Surface along which body or structure is cut for anatomical study.
Sagittal Plane
Divides body vertically into right and left parts.
Frontal Plane
Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions.
Midsagittal (median) Plane
Lies on midline. An imaginary line drawn down the midline of the body to divide the body into a right and left side.
Parasagittal Plane
Not on midline. Vertical plane that divides the body into unequal right and left sides.
Frontal (coronal) Plane
Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior parts.
Transverse (horizontal) Plane
Runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. Divides body horizontally into superior and inferior parts. Produces a cross section.
Oblique Section
Cuts made diagonally.
Dorsal cavity
Contains the cranial cavity and spinal column.
Cranial cavity
Encases brain.
Vertebral cavity
Encases spinal cord.
Thoracic Cavity
Contains heart and lungs.
Abdominal Cavity
Contains digestive viscera.
Pelvic Cavity
Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum.
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Contains both the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Ventral Body Cavity
The more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities, has 2 major subdivisions, the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, houses internal organs called Viscera.
R Hypochondriac
region
1
Epigastric
region
2
L Hypochondriac
region
3
Lateral
abdominal
region
4 and 6
Inguinal region
7 and 9
Hypogastric
region
8
Mediastinum. Diaphragm
1, 4
Pleural cavity, Pericardial cavity
2
Parietal
pericardium
1
Pericardial cavity
2
Visceral
pericardium
3
Heart
4
Metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
catabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks
anabolism
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
stem cells
cells that remain able to differentiate into various other types of cells
Reproduction
production of new organisms and new cells
autopsy
examination to determine the cause of death
extracellular fluid
fluid outside the cells
blood plasma,
liquid portion of blood
interstitial fluid
fluid in the spaces between cells
intracellular fluid
fluid inside the cell
disorder
is any abnormality of structure or function
Disease
specific term for an illness characterized by a
recognizable set of signs and symptoms
local disease
Affects one part of a limited region
systemic disease
disease that affects the body generally, often due to under- or overfunctioning of the internal glands
symptoms
Subjective indications of disease reported by the patient.- pain, dizziness,itching
signs
Objective evidence of disease observed on physical exams- abnormal pulse,fever,sweatingor pallor
epidemiology
the branch of medicine that studies the causes, spread, and control of disease in populations
Pharmacology
the study of drugs and their effects on the body
serous membrane
covers the
viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and also lines
the walls of the thorax and abdomen
pleura
The serous membrane of the pleural cavities is called the