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dependence on a single agricultural commodity

Neolithic Revolution-

Dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication

Nomadic Herding-.

the wandering but movement of livestock solely dependent on natural forage; the most extensive type of land use system


A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding (and moving of) domesticated animals from pasture to pasture

Nucleated Settlement Pattern-

a type of settlement pattern where houses are grouped together in tiny clusters or hamlets, or in slightly larger clusters we call villages; the most prevalent rural residential pattern in agricultural areas

Open-lot System-

system of agricultural land distribution in which all villagers worked on one large plot of community farmland to produce a crop to eat

Organic Agriculture-

Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.


Large, treeless plains in South America.


agriculture based on the seasonal movement of animals from winter to summer pastures and back again

Pastoral Nomadism-

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals

Patriarchal System-

social system in which the father is the head of the family and men have authority over women and children, and land


Chemicals used on plants that usually do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals

Plant Domestication-

The process where plants are artificially selected and become accustomed to human provision and control

Plantation Agriculture-

production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.

Plantation Farming-

a type of farming in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country

Post-industrial Societies-

a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization


activities that harevest or extract something from the earth, where humans are in the closest contact with the resources and potentialities of the environment

Primary Economic Activity-

concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment; such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture


system which the eldest son in a family; or, in exceptional cases, daughter; inherits of all a dying parent's land

Quaternary Sector-

service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital; examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services

Quaternary Economic Activity-

Economic activity involving the collection, processing, and distribution of information.

Quinary Economic Activity-

service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skills. Ex: scientific research and high-level management; economic activity involving the highest levels of decision making in a society or economy.


the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and byproducts such as leather and wool Rectangular Survey System-

Rectangular Survey System-

(public land survey) system used by the US Land Office to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains; system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels

Root Crops-

crop that is reproduced by cultivating the roots of or the cuttings from the plants

Second Agricultural Revolution-

dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution; witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce

Secondary Economic Activity-

economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector

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