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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. mechanism by which humans contract animal borne viruses
  2. Mechanism of yellow fever hemorrhagic sequelae
  3. Viruses with animal vectors
  4. Diagnosis of animal borne diseases
  5. enhancing antibody
  1. a Viruses are usually shed in the feces and urine of the endemic host animal its humans acquire the virus by inhalation of the dried fecal matter or urine
    -rabies can spread this way but most known for being spread by animal bites
  2. b Antibody made to the viral serotype encountered during the initial infection which ends up being not only useless at clearing a 2nd infection from a different serotype but also harmful to the host
  3. c Liver disrupts production of clotting factors leading to bleeding
    -black vomit can also be seen
  4. d -Diagnosis of lassa and Ebola are only done by reference centers in the CDc (requires BL4 containment lab)
    -hantavirus is diagnosed by serology
    -rabies is diagnosed using immunohistochemistry on autopsied brain tissue
  5. e Rabies

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Yellow fever → for humans, live/attenuated virus
    WEE, EEE, VEE → for horses, not humans
  2. chikungunya= Clicking joint disease (found in Africa and the Indian Ocean islands)
  3. Humans have no natural resistance because they don't usually see these viruses
    -they are not the normal host
  4. Control exposure to vector
  5. High fever and bleeding are the primary symptoms
    -mortality rates can be as high as 80%
    -bleeding is due to multiple mechanisms depending on the virus

5 True/False questions

  1. Symptoms of hemorrhagic fevers caused by lassa, EbolaSevere hemorrhage due to viral cytopathic effect in the vascular endothelium


  2. Incidence of incidental host infectionThe incidence of infection is much higher than the number of people that develop clinical symptoms
    -for every person that develops West Nile encephalitis there are approximately 150 people who are infected


  3. Primary clinical manifestation of all of the major arboviruses in the USEncephalitis


  4. Pathogenesis of West Nile encephalitis virus-Mosquito bites human
    - virus enters bloodstream and replicates in local endothelial cells
    -secondary viremia seeds CNS
    -virus replicated in neurons and meninges
    -symptoms occur due to cell death and inflammation


  5. 3 mechanisms of virus maintenance in natureMosquito bites its subject injecting a bit of saliva containing the virus into the blood bypassing the skin barrier