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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Example the virus that causes arthritis or arthralgia
  2. Role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever
  3. Viruses primarily seen in people who have traveled outside of the US
  4. Endemic area for La Crosse encephalitis
  5. Why animal vector viruses are dangerous to humans
  1. a 1. Dengue has 4 serotypes
    2. When a person is infected with dengue virus, they are only infected with one of the 4 serotypes and the antibodies that are made are specific for only that one serotype.
    3. patient gets better and later is infected again with a different serotype of dengue fever.
    4. ANTIBODIES from the initial infection WILL BIND to the 2nd serotype but CANNOT NEUTRALIZE IT.
    5. Virus can still infect the cells and because macrophages recognize the FC portion of the bound antibodies they get infected too.
    6. Hemorrhagic fever occurs when the macrophages are killed by the virus and release all of their cytokines especially TNF alpha resulting in DIC and hypovolemic shock which can lead to death
  2. b Primarily along the Mississippi River extending as far eastward as black earth
  3. c Humans have no natural resistance because they don't usually see these viruses
    -they are not the normal host
  4. d chikungunya= Clicking joint disease (found in Africa and the Indian Ocean islands)
  5. e Yellow fever and dengue fever
    -it is important to take a good travel history as part of your exam
    -also consider recommending vaccines for people traveling to specific areas around the globe

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Virus is shed into the feces of the tick and onto the skin of the human; itching introduces the contaminated feces into the host by breaking the skin barrier
  2. -This is rare; although West Nile has been transmitted through blood transfusion
  3. Rabies
    sin nombre
  4. Mosquito to monkey and back to mosquito
    -humans are incidental
  5. -Arthropod borne
    -can be transmitted by bloodsucking arthropods including tics, sand flies, and mosquitoes

5 True/False questions

  1. mechanism by which humans contract animal borne virusesViruses are usually shed in the feces and urine of the endemic host animal its humans acquire the virus by inhalation of the dried fecal matter or urine
    -rabies can spread this way but most known for being spread by animal bites

          

  2. Incidence of incidental host infectionThe incidence of infection is much higher than the number of people that develop clinical symptoms
    -for every person that develops West Nile encephalitis there are approximately 150 people who are infected

          

  3. diagnosis of insect vector diseases-Diagnosis of lassa and Ebola are only done by reference centers in the CDc (requires BL4 containment lab)
    -hantavirus is diagnosed by serology
    -rabies is diagnosed using immunohistochemistry on autopsied brain tissue

          

  4. Hantavirus pulmonary syndromeCaused by the sin nombre virus
    -mechanism of infection is inhalation of dried rodent urine and feces
    -target organ = lungs → pulmonary edema
    -little inflammation, necrosis, or cytopathic effect
    -mortality rate is 76%

          

  5. viruses employing the sylvan cycle-Western equine encephalitis
    -Eastern equine encephalitis
    -lacrosse encephalitis
    -West Nile