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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. sin nombre virus
  2. Arthropod sustained vector
  3. mechanism by which humans contract animal borne viruses
  4. Mechanism of tick transmission
  5. Symptoms of hemorrhagic fevers caused by lassa, Ebola
  1. a -Seen in Colorado tick fever
    -transmission pattern: small animals→ ticks→ other tics → back to small animals
    -humans are incidental
  2. b Virus is shed into the feces of the tick and onto the skin of the human; itching introduces the contaminated feces into the host by breaking the skin barrier
  3. c Severe hemorrhage due to viral cytopathic effect in the vascular endothelium
  4. d Viruses are usually shed in the feces and urine of the endemic host animal its humans acquire the virus by inhalation of the dried fecal matter or urine
    -rabies can spread this way but most known for being spread by animal bites
  5. e -bunya/hanta virus
    -Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
    -primary vector is wild mice

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. WEE
    La Crosse encephalitis
    dengue fever
    West Nile virus
  2. RNA
  3. -lassa virus -arena virus (Small rodents)
    -marburg virus - filovirus (Rodents/monkeys)
    - Ebola - filovirus (rodents/monkey)
    * all of these cause hemorrhagic fever
  4. -Patient develops confusion, lethargy, difficulty maintaining balance, and speech difficulties
    -fever is often seen
    -some viruses have just a fever malaise as the predominant presentation and can be self-limiting
  5. 1. Cultures are available for most of the Arboviruses
    -not routine
    -may involve inoculation of newborn mice
    2. diagnosis is usually made by serology using acute and convalescent sera
    -obtaining a sample can be troublesome
    -blood only contains virus during viremia
    -stool is negative
    -viruses rarely found in the throat or CNS
    3. PCR looks promising

5 True/False questions

  1. Complexities of arboviruses-Mosquito borne viruses must be able to replicate at ambient temperatures in the mosquito as well as that host body temperatures
    -this suggests a very broad host range


  2. Urban cycleDoesn't occur in cities because the viruses are maintained by transmission between animal and insect; humans are just incidental hosts
    -examples = yellow fever, WEE, VEE, lacrosse, West Nile


  3. Role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever1. Dengue has 4 serotypes
    2. When a person is infected with dengue virus, they are only infected with one of the 4 serotypes and the antibodies that are made are specific for only that one serotype.
    3. patient gets better and later is infected again with a different serotype of dengue fever.
    4. ANTIBODIES from the initial infection WILL BIND to the 2nd serotype but CANNOT NEUTRALIZE IT.
    5. Virus can still infect the cells and because macrophages recognize the FC portion of the bound antibodies they get infected too.
    6. Hemorrhagic fever occurs when the macrophages are killed by the virus and release all of their cytokines especially TNF alpha resulting in DIC and hypovolemic shock which can lead to death


  4. Incidence of incidental host infectionThe incidence of infection is much higher than the number of people that develop clinical symptoms
    -for every person that develops West Nile encephalitis there are approximately 150 people who are infected


  5. Urban cycle transmission pattern-Multiple reservoirs
    -mosquitoes to birds, snakes, and rodents then back to mosquitoes
    -animals serve as the winter reservoir
    -humans and horses are dead end, tangential, or incidental hosts