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Biology Lecture Test2
Terms in this set (51)
Changing the number of ____ would change it into an atom of a different element.
protons in an atom
A glass of grapefruit juice, at pH 3, contains ____ H+ as a glass of tomato juice, at pH 4.
ten times as much
A sodium atom has a mass number of 23. Its atomic number is 11. How many electrons does it have (if it is not an ion)?
Which of the following is a trace elements, required only in small amounts by most living things?
An acid is a substance that:
donates hydrogen ions to solutions
How an atom behaves when it comes into contact with other atoms is determined by its:
Atoms of different phosphorus isotopes:
have different numbers of neutrons
An ion is formed when an atom:
gains or loses an electron
The smallest particle of water is:
Ice floats because:
its water molecules are farther apart than in liquid water
anything that occupies space and has mass is:
___is found on earth in three physical states solid,liquid,and gas
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means:
an element that is essential for life but required in extremely minute amounts:
__ is vital for energy processing and for transporting oxygen in your blood.
__ is an essential ingredient of a hormone produced by the thyroid gland deficiency in the diet causes thyroid to grow to abnormal sizes.
__ is added during municipal water treatment process to raise levels to a concentration that can reduce tooth decay.
a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio.
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element:
a subatomic particle with single positive electrical charge
a subatomic particle with a single negative charge
is electrically neutral has no charge
all atoms of a particular element have the same unique number of protons.
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
approximately equal to its mass number
one of several atomic forms of an element each with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
__is one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy.
uncontrolled exposure to them can harm living organisms by damaging molecules especially dna
The chemical reactivity of an atom depends on the number of electrons in the outer _____ of the atom
a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
nonpolar covalent bonds
a covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
polar covalent bonds
A type of weak chemical formed when the partially positivehydrogen atom participating in a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom participating in a polar covalent bond in another molecule .
tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
the amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in a body of matter
measures the intensity of heat in degrees reflecting the average kinetic energy or speed of molecules.
a substance that is dissolved in a solution
the dissolving agent of a solution.for example water is the most versatile ____ known.
a liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
a compound that donates hydrogen ions to solutions
a compound that accepts hydrogen ions and removes them from solution
a measure of the relative acidity of a solution ranging in value from 0(most) to 14(most basic).
__ stands for potential hydrogen and refer to the concentration of hydrogen ions.
a chemical substance that resists changes in ph by accepting hydrogen ions from or donating hydrogen ions to solutions.
rain,snow, or fog that is more acidic than ph 5.2
decreasing ph of ocean waters due to absorption of excess atmospheric co2 from the burning of fossil fuels
the breaking and making of chemical bonds leading to changes in the composition of matter.
a starting material in a chemical reaction
an ending material in a chemical reaction
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