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Williams - AP Geo Chapters 1- 4

AP Human Geo Rubenstein
STUDY
PLAY
Habit
A repetitive act of a particular INDIVIDUAL
Custom
A repetitive act of a GROUP to the point htat it becomes a characteristic of that group.
Folk Culture
Traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas.
Popular Culture
Found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain customs despite difference in other personal characteristics.
Homogeneous
Similar: the same in structure
Heterogeneous
Unlike:differing in structure
Taboo
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
Dowry
A "gift" from the family of a bride to the family of a groom as a sign of respect. In some societies, a requirement for a good marriage
Imperialism
the policy of seeking to dominate the affairs of weaker countries; to establish an empire
Demography
Study of population characteristics
Ecumene
Portion of earth occupied by permanent human settlement
CBR
acronym for # of live births per 1000 in population
Crude Birth Rate
what acronym CBR stands for
CDR
acronym for # of deaths per 1000 of population
Crude Death Rate
Term that "CDR" as an acronym stands for
NIR
acronym for % by which a population grows in a year, CBR minus CDR
Natural Increase Rate
Term that "NIR" as an acronym stands for
Doubling Time
Number of years needed to double a population
TFR
Average number of children a woman will have in her lifetime
Total Fertility Rate
Term that "TFR" as an acronym stands for
IMR
Annual number of infant deaths under one year of age
Infant Mortality Rate
Term that "IMR" as an acronym stands for
Life Expectancy
Measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current levels.
Demographic Transition
Change in a society's population from a condition of high CBR/CDR to a condition of low CBR/CDR
Agricultural Revolution
1st one of these was when humans domesticated plants and animals instead of hunting and gathering; about 10,000 years ago
Industrial Revolution
Improvement in Industrial technology that transformed society (more from agriculture to industry); about 200 years ago
Medical Revolution
Improved medical technology and practices that changed world societies; about 50 years ago
ZPG
Acronym for the decline of total fetility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
Zero Population Growth
Term that "ZPG", as an acronym, stands for
Population Pyramid
A bar graph that displays a country's population by age and gender; shape is controlled by CBR
Dependency Ratio
Number of people who are too young/too old COMPARED to those who are at the right age to work.
Sex Ratio
Number of males per 100 females in a population
Overpopulation
When population exceeds available resources
Contraceptives
Devices or Medicines to reduce pregnancy/birth rates (aka Birth Control)
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with deseases
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide region and impacts a very high proportion of the population
Malthus
Last name of man who first discussed the possibility that population could outgrow food supply
Arithmetic
Type of density; The number of people living in a given unit of area or the total population divided by the total land area
Baby Boom
A large group born in the US between 1946 and 1964, just after WWII
Carrying Capacity
The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support
Neo-Malthusian
Someone who believes that Malthus was correct and that we will run out of various resources not just food; often an advocate of population control programs.
Physiologic
Type of density that shows a ratio of total population divided by the total of arable land
Agricultural
Type of density that shows a ratio of the total number of farmers divided by the total arable land.
Arable
Synonym for "Farmable"
Population Clusters
East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Western Europe are the 4 ________ _______.
Acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Migration
Permanent move to a new location
Emigration
Migration out of a location. Also known as out-migration
Immigration
Migration into a location. Also known as in-migration
Net Migration
The difference between the number of in-migration and the number of out-migration in a country.
Internal Migration
permanent move with the same country
International Migration
permanent movement from one country to another
Interregional Migration
Movement from one region of a country to another
Intraregional Migration
Movement within one (the same) region of a country
voluntary Migration
Migrants CHOOSE to move usually for economic reasons
forced migration
Migrants are compelled to move by cultural factors. Example: Slavery
Chain Migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same ethnic group have previously migrated there
Migration Transition
Changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic Transition
Push Factor
Induces people to move OUT of their present location
Pull Factor
Induces people to move TO a new location
Refugees
Forced migrants because of fear of persecution and /or death.
Floodplain
area subject to flooding during a specific period of time.
Intervening Obstacle
Environmental/Cultural feature that hinders migration.
Undocumented Immigrants
People who enter a country without permission.
Quotas
Limit on the number of people who may immigrate to the US during a one year period.
Brain Drain
Large Scale out-migration by well-educated people.
Guest Workers
Citizens of poorer countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East
Counter Urbanization
Net Migration from urban to rural areas.