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32 terms

Ch. 2 Life Processes R. Boyle

STUDY
PLAY
nutrition
the process by which the body takes in and uses food
transport
to carry or move from one place to another
respiration
the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain
excretion
the process by which wastes are removed from the body
adaptations
the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
cholorphyll
green pigment that captures light energy for photosynthesis
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
thykaloids
membrane discs containing plant pigments; coin-like structures
grana
stacks of thylakoids
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
carotene
has a yellow-orange color and is primarily found in the palms and the soles
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
stomata
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
palisade layer
the layer of cells in a leaf where most photosynthesis occurs
intercellular digestion
proces in which protozoans digest tthei r food. Lyosomes enclose themeselves arounda food particle and release digestive enzymes. Unusuable products are taken out of the vaucole
extracellular digestion
digestion that takes place outside of the cell
psuedopods
extensions of cytoplasm for movement and feeding
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
equilibrium
a state of balance
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
circulation
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
fermentation
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
cyclosis
streaming movement within cell that allows for transport in the cytoplasm
anaerobic respiration
Respiration that does not require oxygen
aerobic respiration
Respiration that requires oxygen
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
limiting factors
Conditions in the environment that put limits on where an organism can live
climax community
a stable mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time
abiotic
non-living
succession
the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support