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the process by which the body takes in and uses food


to carry or move from one place to another


the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain


the process by which wastes are removed from the body


the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments


process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches


green pigment that captures light energy for photosynthesis


organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy


membrane discs containing plant pigments; coin-like structures


stacks of thylakoids


The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.


has a yellow-orange color and is primarily found in the palms and the soles


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.


the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

palisade layer

the layer of cells in a leaf where most photosynthesis occurs

intercellular digestion

proces in which protozoans digest tthei r food. Lyosomes enclose themeselves arounda food particle and release digestive enzymes. Unusuable products are taken out of the vaucole

extracellular digestion

digestion that takes place outside of the cell


extensions of cytoplasm for movement and feeding


process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell


a state of balance


process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment


Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.


process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen


streaming movement within cell that allows for transport in the cytoplasm

anaerobic respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen

aerobic respiration

Respiration that requires oxygen


iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells

limiting factors

Conditions in the environment that put limits on where an organism can live

climax community

a stable mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time




the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time

carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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