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HL History French Revolution
Terms in this set (70)
the monarchic, aristocratic, social and political system established in the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th century until the later 18th century ("early modern France") under the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties.
issued in Berlin by Napoleon on November 21, 1806, following the French success against Prussia at the Battle of Jena. The decree forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France, and installed the Continental System in Europe.
a proclamation issued by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, commander of the Allied Army (principally Austrian and Prussian), on August 1, 1792 to the population of Paris, France during the War of the First Coalition. The Brunswick Manifesto threatened that if the French royal family were harmed, then French civilians would be harmed.
Committee of Public Safety
created in March 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793-1794), a stage of the French Revolution.
Confederation of the Rhine
a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria and Russia in the Battle of Austerlitz.
the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. As a response to the naval blockade of the French coasts enacted by the British government on 16 May 1806, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree on 21 November 1806, which brought into effect a large-scale embargo against British trade.
Council of Ancients
the upper house of the Directory (French: Directoire), the legislature of France from 22 August 1795 until 9 November 1799, roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution.
Council of Five Hundred
the lower house of the legislature of France during the period commonly known (from the name of the executive branch during this time) as the Directory (Directoire), from 22 August 1795 until 9 November 1799, roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution.
Cult of Reason
a belief system established in France and intended as a replacement for Christianity during the French Revolution.
Cult of Supreme Being
a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution. It was intended to become the state religion of the new French Republic.
Declaration of Pillnitz
a statement issued on 27 August 1791 at Pillnitz Castle near Dresden (Saxony) by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and Frederick William II of Prussia. It declared the joint support of the Holy Roman Empire and of Prussia for King Louis XVI of France against the French Revolution.
the government of France during the second-to-last stage of the French Revolution. The five directors exercised power, only one of whom, Lazare Carnot, has a reputation for leadership or political sagacity. It operated following the National Convention and preceding the Consulate.
a person who has "migrated out", often with a connotation of political or social self-exile. The word is the past participle of the French émigrer 'to emigrate'.
The response to the control of the government where the citizens began to rebel
This occurred late in 18th century Europe in response to the skyrocketing cost of goods. This was the practice of manor Lords beginning to actually collect manorial fees, which had not been done in full practice since the medieval era, and even revived some dues that had only been collected at the height of the dark ages.
a political faction in France in 1792-93 within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain (Montagnards), a radical faction within the Jacobin Club.
in 1805, Napoleon I renamed the army that he had assembled on the French coast of the English Channel for the proposed invasion of Britain. It never achieved that goal. Napoleon decided to re-deploy it east in order to eliminate the threat of Austria and Russia, which were part of the Third Coalition assembled against France.
Grand Duchy of Warsaw
a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. Following Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia, the duchy was occupied by Prussian and Russian troops until 1815, when it was formally partitioned between the two countries at the Congress of Vienna.
Built by Napoleon and composed of three parts: an ever-expanding France, a number of dependent satellite kingdoms, and the largely independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia
a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia. It was created after the ultimate defeat of Napoleon at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia and signed in Paris on 26 September 1815. The intention of the alliance was to restrain republicanism and secularism in Europe in the wake of the devastating French Revolutionary Wars, and the alliance nominally succeeded in this up until the Crimean War (1853 - 1856).
the most famous and influential political club in the development of the French Revolution. There were at least 7,000 chapters throughout France, with a membership estimated at a half million or more.
Levée en masse
when translated into English, essentially "mass uprising" or "mass mobilization". The concept originated as a French term for mass conscription during the French Revolutionary Wars, particularly for the one from 16 August 1793.
Radical faction that came from the Jacobins and sat in the high chairs/chamber of the room (national convention)
the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified. Codes of civil and of criminal procedure, commercial and penal codes
the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. The upper house is the Senate ("Sénat"). The National Assembly's members are known as députés (French pronunciation: [depyˈte]; "delegate" or "envoy" in English; the word is an etymological cognate of the English word "deputy", usually "adjoint" in French)., French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Polish Saxon Question
Russia vs. Prussia. Russia wanted all of Poland and Prussia wanted all of Saxony. Castlereagh and Metternich did not like the idea of extending Russian power. Talleyrand also joined them. This was a deal that occurred during the Congress of Vienna.
a treaty signed in Paris on 20 November 1815 by the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. It renewed the alliance first agreed to in 1813 and it modified the aims of the alliance from defeating Napoleon Bonaparte to upholding the settlement following the Napoleonic Wars: with France's admission in 1818, it became the Concert of Europe, though British government distaste for the other allies' reactionary policies meant that it lapsed into ineffectiveness after the mid-1820s.
Rights of Man
passed by France's National Constituent Assembly in August 1789, is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights. It defines the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal.
the radical left-wing partisans of the lower classes; typically urban labourers, which dominated France. Though ill-clad and ill-equipped, they made up the bulk of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars. The appellation refers to the fashionable culottes (silk knee-breeches) of the moderate bourgeois revolutionaries, as distinguished from the working class sans-culottes, who traditionally wore pantalons (trousers).
the second war on revolutionary France by the conservative European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), Portugal and Naples. Their goal was to contain republican France. They failed and France won the war. The Allies formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back France's previous military conquests. The Coalition did very well in 1799, but Russia pulled out. Napoleon took charge in France in late 1799, and he and his marshals defeated the Coalition. In the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, France held all of its previous gains and obtained new lands in Tuscany, Italy. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing an interval of peace in Europe that lasted for 14 months. By May 1803 Britain and France were again at war and in 1805 Britain assembled the Third Coalition to resume the war against France.
the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in 1804. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul, had established himself as the head of a more conservative, authoritarian, autocratic, and centralized republican government in France while not declaring himself head of state
The Estates General
the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General, a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the common people (Third Estate). Summoned by King Louis XVI to propose solutions to his government's financial problems, the Estates-General sat for several weeks in May and June 1789 but came to an impasse over the first item on the agenda, whether they should vote by estate, giving the first two estates an advantage, which was the king's choice, or vote all together, giving the Third Estate the advantage. It was brought to an end when the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly, inviting the other two to join, against the wishes of the king, signaling the outbreak of the French Revolution.
a revolt within the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the National Convention to execute Maximilien Robespierre, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, and several other leading members of the Terror. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution.
a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806. During the war France and its client states under Napoleon I defeated an alliance of the Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Russia, and others.
Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825. He was the first Russian King of Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland. Tsar
Clemens von Metternich
a politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation. , Austria's foreign minister, a prince, who helped orchestrate Austria's role in Europe via the Congress of Vienna
was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, thus the brother of Marie Antoinette. Leopold was a moderate proponent of enlightened absolutism, Austrian Habsburg king who succeeded Joseph II and recalled of Joseph II's reforms.
was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution. His father, Louis, Dauphin of France, was the son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France. As a result of the Dauphin's death in 1765, Louis succeeded his grandfather in 1774., - King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution.
As a member of the Estates-General, the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he opposed the death penalty and advocated the abolition of slavery, while supporting equality of rights, universal male suffrage and the establishment of a republic. He opposed dechristianisation of France, war with Austria and the possibility of a coup by the Marquis de Lafayette. As a member of the Committee of Public Safety, he was an important figure during the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended a few months after his arrest and execution in July 1794 following the Thermidorian reaction.
a French bishop, politician and diplomat. Due to a lame leg, he was not able to start a military career as expected by his family. He studied theology, in 1780, he became Agent-General of the Clergy and represented the Catholic Church to the French Crown. He worked successfully at the highest level (usually as foreign minister or foreign deputy) for the regime of Louis XVI, through several governments of the French Revolution and then for Napoleon, Louis XVIII, Charles X, and Louis-Philippe. Most of them distrusted Talleyrand but, like Napoleon, found him indispensable. The name "Talleyrand" has become a synonym for crafty, cynical diplomacy. He was Napoleon's chief diplomatic aide in the conquest of Europe.
an Anglo-Irish British statesman. As British Foreign Secretary, from 1812 he was central to the management of the coalition that defeated Napoleon and was the principal British diplomat at the Congress of Vienna.
Austrian War of Liberation 1809
In April 1809, Austria rebelled against Napoleonic rule, No one joined them, it was a failure
Battle at Waterloo
fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. A French army under the command of Napoleon was defeated by the armies of the Seventh Coalition, comprising an Anglo-allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blücher.
Battle of Friedland
saw Napoleon I's French army decisively defeat Count von Bennigsen's Russian army about twenty-seven miles (43 km) southeast of Königsberg. The site of Friedland, in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast since 1945, received the new name of Pravdinsk in that year.
Friedland effectively ended the War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-1807) against Napoleon. After nearly twenty-three hours of fighting, the French took control of the battlefield and the Russian army retreated chaotically over the Łyna River, in which many soldiers drowned while trying to escape.
On July 7, 1807, Russia and France signed the first of the Treaties of Tilsit, which made the two nations allies after two years of war.
Battle of Austerlitz
one of Napoleon's greatest victories, where the French Empire effectively crushed the Third Coalition. On 2 December 1805 (20 November Old Style, 11 Frimaire An XIV, in the French Republican Calendar), a French army, commanded by Emperor Napoleon I, decisively defeated a Russo-Austrian army
Battle of Borodino
the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia and the Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 troops and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties. The French Grande Armée under Emperor Napoleon I attacked the Imperial Russian Army of General Mikhail Kutuzov near the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk, and eventually captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army despite inflicting, as well as suffering, heavy losses. About a third of Napoleon's soldiers were killed or wounded. Russian losses were heavy, but casualties could be replaced since large forces of militia were already with the Russian Army and replacement depots, which were close by, had already been gathering and training troops.
Battle of Leipzig
fought 16-19 October 1813 by the coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden led by the Russian Tsar Alexander I and prince Schwarzenberg against the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, at Leipzig, Saxony. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine. The battle marked the culmination of the autumn campaign of 1813 during the German campaign and involved over 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.
Battle of Trafalgar
a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August-December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815).
Civil Constitution of Clergy of 1790
a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution, that subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government. It is often stated this law confiscated the Church's French land holdings or banned monastic vows: that had already been accomplished by earlier legislation. It did, however, complete the destruction of the monastic orders, legislating out of existence "all regular and secular chapters for either sex,
Congress of Vienna
a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries, but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution. France lost all its recent conquests, while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in the west and 40% of the Kingdom of Saxony; Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy. Russia gained parts of Poland. The new kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, and included formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium.
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction,-communistic in nature., Led by Babeuf. Tried to overthrow the Directory and replace it w/ a dictatorial democratic government which would abolish private property and enforce equality. Precurser to communism. Threat was put down easily. Babeuf guillontined.
Constitution of 1791
the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the Absolute Monarchy of the Ancien Régime. One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty, following the steps of the United States of America.
Constitution of 1793
the constitution instated by the Montagnards and by popular referendum under the First Republic during the French Revolution. Drafted by the Committee of Public Safety which was enlarged with the purpose of producing it, the text was presented to the National Convention on 10 June and subsequently accepted by that body on 24 June 1793. The constitution was then ratified by a popular referendum employing universal male suffrage, following approval by 1,784,377 out of approximately 1,800,000 voters. The Convention found in the external and internal state of war sufficient reason to maintain itself until peace and postponed the Constitution's implementation. Though the Constitution was overwhelmingly popular and its drafting and ratification buoyed popular support for the Montagnards, the convention set it aside indefinitely on 10 October 1793 and declared a "Revolutionary Government" until a future peace.
Constitution of 1795
a national constitution of France ratified by the National Convention on 22 August 1795 (5 Fructidor of the Year III under the French Revolutionary Calendar) during the French Revolution. It established the Directory, and remained in effect until the coup of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799) effectively ended the Revolution and began the ascendancy of Napoleon Bonaparte. It was more conservative than the abortive democratic French Constitution of 1793. The Constitution of 1795 established a liberal republic with a franchise based on the payment of taxes, similar to that of the French Constitution of 1791; a bicameral legislature, (Council of Ancients, and a Council of 500) to slow down the legislative process; and a five-man Directory. The central government retained great power, including emergency powers to curb freedom of the press and freedom of association. The Declaration of Rights and Duties of Mankind at the beginning of the constitution included an explicit ban on slavery. It was succeeded by the Constitution of the Year VIII, which established the Consulate.
Coup d'état of Brumair
brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France, and, in the view of most historians, ended the French Revolution. The coup d'état overthrew the Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, Year VIII under the French Republican Calendar.
General Congress at Erfurt
At Tilsit Napoleon had made Tsar Alexander of Russia an admirer, but by the time of the Erfurt Congress from September to October 1808 anti-French sentiment at the Russian court was beginning to threaten the newly forged alliance. was the meeting between emperor Napoleon I of France, and Tsar Alexander I of Russia from sep. 27 to October 14 1808 intended to reaffirm the alliance concluded the previous year with the treaty of Tilsit
Great Fear of 1789
a general panic that occurred between 17 July and 3 August 1789 at the start of the French Revolution. Rural unrest had been present in France since the worsening grain shortage of the spring, and fueled by the rumors of an aristocrat "famine plot" to starve or burn out the population, peasant and town people mobilized in many regions. In response to rumors, fearful peasants armed themselves in self-defense and, in some areas, attacked manor houses. The content of the rumors differed from region to region -- in some areas it was believed that a foreign force were burning the crops in the fields while in other areas it was believed that bandits were burning buildings. Fear of the peasant revolt was a deciding factor in the decision to abolish feudalism.
issued on December 17, 1807 by Napoleon I of France to enforce the Berlin Decree of 1806 which had initiated the Continental System. This system was the basis for his plan to defeat the British by waging economic warfare. The Milan Decree stated that no European country was to trade with the United Kingdom.
Night of August 4th
On this night, the National Assembly congregated and took power away from the nobles. Both contemporary observers and modern historians note that the nobles gave up nothing they had not already lost. Nevertheless, in the months ahead, the National Assembly turned the reforms of August 4th into law, meeting a key Enlightenment goal--the equality of all male citizens before the law.
a military conflict between the First French Empire and the allied powers of the Spanish Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its ally until then.
Reign of Terror
a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris), and another 25,000 in summary executions across France
Second Treaty of Paris
This treaty of 1815 replaced the treaty that had been made a year earlier, before Napoleon's Hundred Days. It essentially said exactly the same as the treaty a year before except it made reparations against France for having the never to allow the Hundred Days. 700,000,000 were to be owed to the Quadruple alliance (payable) and France was to be occupied until it was certain that the restored Bourbons were in control Treaty of Paris of 1815, was signed on 20 November 1815 following the defeat and second abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte. In February, Napoleon had escaped from his exile on Elba; he entered Paris on 20 March, beginning the Hundred Days of his restored rule.
a wave of killings in Paris (2-7 September 1792) and other cities in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. There was a fear that foreign armies would attack Paris and that the inmates of the city's prisons would revolt and massacre the people. Radicals called for preemptive action, especially journalist Jean Paul Marat, who called on draftees to kill the prisoners before they marched off.
Storming of Bastille
The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the center of Paris. The prison only contained seven inmates at the time of its storming but was a symbol of the abuses of the monarchy: its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution., July 14th, 1789. There had been a rumor that the king had been planning a military coup against the national Assembly. The people decided to defend their city and marched to the Bastille prison for gunpowder. The governor of the prison refused them, so they fought until the prison surrendered. This saved the National Assembly. Is now called the "Bastille Day" and is France's Independence Day.
Tennis Court Oath
a pivotal event during the first days of the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789. The only person who did not sign was Joseph Martin-Dauch, a politician who would not execute decisions not sanctioned by the king. They made a makeshift conference room inside a tennis court located in the Saint-Louis district of the city of Versailles, near the Palace of Versailles.
The Coup d'état of Fructidor
a seizure of power by members of the French Directory on 4 September 1797 when their opponents, the Royalists, were gaining strength. Brown stresses the turn toward dictatorship and the failure of liberal democracy under the Directory, blaming it on, "chronic violence, ambivalent forms of justice, and repeated recourse to heavy-handed repression.", Seeing that the royalists who had handily won the first free election in France in the spring of 1797 were going to restore the monarchy, something the regicides could not allow, the Directory turned in September of 1797 to Napoleon, who sent General Augereau with a few thousand soldiers, so that the Legislative Assembly and the Directory could annul the election in the spring to "defend the revolution and keep out the Old Regime."
Treaty of Campo Formino
signed on 18 October 1797 (27 Vendémiaire, Year VI) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of revolutionary France and the Austrian monarchy. The treaty marked the victorious conclusion to Napoleon's campaigns in Italy, the collapse of the First Coalition, and the end of the first phase of the French Revolutionary Wars., treaty signed with Austria that required redistribution of Rhine territories thereby creating larger German states
Treaty of Chaumont
a series of separately signed but identically worded agreements between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom dated 1 March 1814, although the actual signings took place on 9 or 19 March. The treaty was intended to draw the powers of the Sixth Coalition into a closer alliance in the event that France rejected the peace terms they had recently offered. Each agreed to put 150,000 soldiers in the field against France and to guarantee the European peace (once obtained) against French aggression for twenty years.
Treaty of Lunéville
signed on 9 February 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, negotiating both on behalf of his own domains and of the Holy Roman Empire. Joseph Bonaparte signed for France, and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl, the Austrian foreign minister, signed for the Emperor., Feb, 1801. Austrians signed this with France after been defeated by Nap at Marengo. Terms of Campo Formio confirmed . In 1802 a peace was also signed with the Brits.
Treaty of Tilsit
Russia became an ally of France, two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland. The first was signed on 7 July, between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon I of France, when they met on a raft in the middle of the Neman River. The second was signed with Prussia on 9 July. The treaties ended the War of the Fourth Coalition at the expense of the Prussian king, who had already agreed to a truce on 25 June after the Grande Armée had pursued him to the easternmost frontier of his realm, and in Tilsit ceded about half of his pre-war territories. From those territories, Napoleon had created French client states which were formalized and recognized at Tilsit: the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Free City of Danzig; the other ceded territories were awarded to further French clients and to Russia., Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.
The hunting down and assassinating of former republicans of France by emigre's after the final defeat of Napoleon, people suspected of having ties with the governments of the French Revolution or of Napoleon suffered arrest and execution.
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