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any instance of aggressive extension of authority


a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere


a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs

Sphere of influence

the geographical area in which one nation is very influential


a group that enjoys superior status to others


A Zulu chief in Southern Africa who used soldiers and good military organization to create a large centralized state.

Boer War

either of two wars: the first when the Boers fought England in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus (1880-1881)

Menelik II

Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia. In the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence.

David Livingstone

Scottish missionary and explorer who discovered the Zambezi River and Victoria Falls (1813-1873)

Henry Stanley

British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. He helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State.

King Leopold II

King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732)


systematic killing of a racial or cultural group

Muhammad Ali

Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)


a point conceded or yielded


a ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband's funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn't comply with this she would be disgraced.


An Indian soldier serving under British command.


showy American butterfly resembling the monarch but smaller

Balance of trade

the difference between a country's total exports and total imports

Trade surplus

when a country exports more than it imports

Opium War

War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)

Trade deficit

an excess of imports over exports

Open door policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.


a member of a nationalistic Chinese secret society that led an unsuccessful rebellion in 1900 against foreign interests in China


a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury


Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.


powerful banking and industrial families in Japan


a union of political organizations


one of the self-governing nations in the British Commonwealth


native to an area

Penal colony

A place to send prisoners


the practice of making a debtor work for his creditor until the debt is discharged


loyalty to the interests of a particular region

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