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56 terms

Nutrition exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
glycemic index
The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin
response as compared with pure glucose can be measured and ranked on a scale
lanugo
hair anorxia
type 2 diabetes
. the reduced blood circulation and compromised healing
NHANES
emerging trends for each decade nation
10 state survey
trends by area of the states
supplemental childrens
looks at food insecurity for children; shows hunger in america
national food conume study
how we eat/what we eat
anthropometry
measurement of proper growth compared to standards
ratio of waist to hips
hips smaller than waist
BMI
measure of anthropometrey
DEXA
dual exray absorptiometry= most accurate measure of BMI
2 measures of nutritional status
biochemical and clinical
PEM
no hair color because of lack of protein
HIV
thrush
Annorexia
lanugo
bulimia
decay of teeth
cillia
up surface area
mitochondria
power house of cell
genes x4
instruction for building proteins
handling of nutrients
complete set in each cell
cntrol function of proteins
intracellular fluid
cell reactions here,
hold cell shape
kidney
reg h20 content, filter 300x/day
hormones
signal oragan activity, directly into blood by glands; effects nutrition eg in pregnancy
pancreas
insulin and glycogen;Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients
Releases bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid that enters small intestine
hypothal
regulate hunger thirst, sleep and wake cycles
fight or flight
metab up, digest down; heart disease if in constant state
antigen
challenge to immune system
phagocytes
consume invadors
lymphocytes
t cells- mark invadors
b cells attack cells marked by b cells
chronic inflamation
diet can change
length digestive tract
26 ft
salivary gland
Donate a starch-digesting enzyme (carbs)
Donate a trace of fat-digesting enzyme (important to infants)
1 min in mouth
liver
Manufactures bile, a detergent-like substance that facilitates digestion of fats
stomach
Adds hjydorchloric acid, enzymes, and fluid
Churns, mixes, and grinds
food to a liquid mass;
1-2 hours here
gall bladder
Stores bile until needed
small intestine
Secretes enzymes that digest carbohydrate, fat, and protein
Cells lining intestine absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
inputs from pancreas and gallbladder
7-8 hours
lg intestine
Reabsorbs water and minerals
Passes waste (fiber, bacteria, any unabsorbed nutrients) and some
water to rectum
12-14
saliva
starches and fat, health of teeth
monosacharides
Glucose, fructose, galactose
disacharides
Lactose, maltose, and sucrose
sucrose
glucose and fructose
maltose
glucose x2
lactase
glucose and galactose
polysacharides
Starch
Plant's storage form of glucose
Glycogen
Fiber
soluble fiber
readily ferment
ketosis
break down of protien ie muscle when low on fat
glucose
basic carb unit 4 energy
insulin
take glucose form blood
type 1 dibetes
5-10% autoimmune disease attacking pancrease leading to inable to produce insuline
young kids of average body weight
why recommend fibers x8
Reduced risk of heart disease
Reduced risk of hypertension
Reduced risk of diabetes
Reduced risk of bowel disease
Promotion of healthy body weight
blood glucose control
lower cholestoral
reduce Constipation, hemorrhoids, appendicitis, diverticulosis
satiety
diverticula
outpockits of gastric mucosa
apendicitis
swelling apendix
dietary fiber importance
Increases food volume without increasing caloric content, providing satiety May reduce appetite
Attracts water and forms a viscous gel during digestion, slowing the emptying of the stomach and intestinal transit, shielding carbohydrates from enzymes, and delaying absorption of glucose[28] Lowers variance in blood sugar levels
Lowers total and LDL cholesterol Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease
Regulates blood sugar May reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[29]
Speeds the passage of foods through the digestive system Facilitates regular defecation
Adds bulk to the stool Alleviates constipation
Balances intestinal pH[30] and stimulates intestinal fermentation production of short-chain fatty acids May reduce risk of colorectal cancer[31]
dri fiber
20-35 grams of fiber daily
Based on energy needs, age, and gender
kernal parts
Germ
Endosperm
Bran
Husk
whole grains
unrefined grains that haven't had their bran and germ removed by milling
digestion starch
Begins in the mouth
Splits starch into maltose
Digestion ceases in the stomach
Digestion resumes in small intestine
Pancreas