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Animal Behavior Exam II
Terms in this set (45)
Trying a food and waiting to see if you get sick. If they don't get sick, they will continue to eat the food, but if they do get sick, they will quit eating that food.
Optimal Foraging Theory function
E-how much each prey is worth
T-cost of obtaining that prey
-predator wants to maximize the energy it gets per unit time
When is it advantageous to be a specialist?
-energy from prey 1 is much greater than prey 2
- handling time for prey 1 is less than prey 2
-encounter rate for prey 1 is greater than prey 2
Does relative abundance of prey affect the predators choice?
NO! Only the encounter rate with the more PROFITABLE prey influences choice. The more abundance prey 1 gets, the more likely prey 2 gets dropped out of the predators diet
What kind of priority were the grasshoppers attributing to the flavored grass?
Value priority- food that they were given when they were hungry is perceived as more valueable
The state that you were in when you ate the food makes it seem more valuable than it is
consumes the drive to where it isn't there anymore, actually eating the food
colors that warn predators that the organism is dangerous
"Arms Race" between snakes and Newts
Newts have the poison tetrodotoxin, which binds Na+ channels and causes the heart to stop. Newts have a mutation that does not allow TTX to bind their Na+ channels. Some snakes have evolved similar mutations that makes them resistant to TTX. This causes some Newts to evolved another defense.
poisons that plants can have, such as tanins
What sounds do plants listen to?
Subsonic sounds (vibrations) that predators make when plants are being eaten. The plants can increase anthosianide when they hear these vibrations.
Infects the brain of ants and causes them to move to the tip of grass so that they will be eaten by cows (their final destination)
The protazoan that infects rats and some humans (mammals) but reproduces in cats.
resembling an uninteresting or unimportant object, preventing recognition from the receiver
ex)flounders matching their background, there are limitations to the backgrounds that they can match, they spread out melanocytes to change color, they have photoreceptors on their body that allow them to see what colors are around them.
organisms that don't change what they look like, but they perch among twigs or leaves that look like them. This only protects them from predators that use vision to prey
evolving to mimic something they are not
"screaming monkey hypothesis"
Imperfect mimcry is favored because certain shapes can trigger a nervous reaction. Predators are innately programmed to flee when abruptly confronted with what appears to be the eye of one of their predators. Innate traits, rather than learned avoidance behavior
Masquerading for Mates
males mimic food items to get females in close proximity so that they can mate with them.
ex) swordtail characin (menos)-end of male fin looks like an ant
-orchids that resemble the sillouette of a female bee to attract male bees for pollination, although they do not provide any food to the bees
-the males will still attempt to mate with the flower because the cost of a missed opportunity is greater than a false alarm of it not being a female bee.
-the bees therefore have a low threshold for acceptance
predator mimics harmless stimulus to lure in its prey
-animals using "false alarm calls" to gain a foraging advantage
-works best when it is in low frequency
-can mimic 45 different species of birds alarm calls
-species react the most to their own call
-by changing the call, it keeps species from habituating to it and not responding
Cuckoos as Brood Parasites
-deposit their eggs in other species nests
-mimic the eggs of their hots
-mimic and exaggerate the begging call of the host species as well so that the parents will bring a lot of food to the nest
a harmless organism resembles a toxic or dangerous species
ex) coral snakes, resemble each other, one is poisonous and the others aren't
mimic and model are both dangerous and unprofitable
Why are zebras striped?
To keep away the biting tsetse flies. The more flies that are present, the more striped the Zebras are.
relocation that is farther and longer than in daily activities
The term for when birds become restless in a lab around the time that they are supposed to migrate
-this indicates that there is a genetic basis to migration (Both when and where)
How do birds avoid breeding with a species that migrates to a different location?
They may be synpatric at the breeding site, but not synchronic. They return from migration at different times so that they breed at different times.
How does group coordinated movement work?
local interactions between individuals who are all following the same set of rules
not really sure where you are going, the navigation is passive
simple attraction towards a stimulus
ex) stimulus is light --phototaxis
animal gets a bearing of where they want to go and then they head that direction in a straight line
ex)worms that use the earth's magnetic field to know up from down (because they don't feel earth's gravity)
using a sequence of compass bearings to steer a course. Not a straight line, taking different steps
finding the end goal by using landmarks (a compass is not needed)
dead reckoning- putting together different paths in your head to find the shortest path
-path integration to find a new path
-the animal must be capable of some kind of trigonometry
navigating with a knowledge of the location of a distant goal, need a compass and a map (independent of landmarks)
How can an animal measure distance?
calories, time spent, how tired they are, landmarks
ex) knowing how fast you are going by looking at the guard rails outside of the window when driving
-overestimated the distance when lines were horizontal, underestimated the distance when the lines were vertical
Bees Waggle Dance
-communicating the location of a flower by:
-angle of waggle (not in direction of the flower but which respect to the top of the nest being north)=direction
-number of waggles=distance
What happens when frequency of mimicry occurs in Batesian and Mullerian mimicry?
In Batesian, if the mimics become more common than the models, than predators will start to ignore the warning signals.
In Mullerian mimicry, the amount of mimics does not matter because every time the predator tries the model or the mimic it will be disadvantageous.
predators mimics harmless stimulus to lure in it's prey
ex) crab spiders camouflaged against a flower to lure in bees
From ecology of fear article, explain why establishments in Austin are dispersed the way that they are due to Austin crime rates.
The cost of crime gives an additional cost to an establishment. Fear response reduces the direct effect of crime rates on establishments.
three predation factors
1) cost of predation
2)marginal fitness value of an activity
3) survivors fitness
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