60 terms

Rise of Europe

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Louis the Pious
The one legitimate heir to Charlemagne
840
The year Louis the Pious:
1. Reforms the monasteries and churches
2. Expansion, controls Brittany, Denmark, and small bits of Spain
Louis the Pious
1. Reforms the monasteries and churches
2. Expansion, controls Brittany, Denmark, and small bits of Spain
Lothar
Louis the German
Charles the Bald
Louis the Pious's Sons
Lothar
Oldest son of Louis the Pious who tries to disinherit his two brother
Lothar's attempt to disinherit brothers
What leads to civil war after Louis the Pious's reign?
The Bloody Battle
June 25, 842
highest ranking officials
Who was killed in the Bloody Battle?
842
Oaths of Strasburg
Oaths of Strasburg
The younger two brother go against Lothar and take oaths to each other in an event known as?
Recorded in 3 languages
Why are the Oaths of Strasburg important in Europe?
Louis the German
Which brother and his army from the east speaks Old High German and takes the oath in Bad Latin?
Standard Latin
What language did both Louis the German and Charles the Bald understand?
French
Latin vernacular in Oaths of Strasburg?
Treaty of Verdun
Settled the Civil war and divided Charlemagne's empire
Charles the Bald
Which brother received the Western portion and marked the medieval founding of the French State?
Louis the German
Which brother received the easter portion of the empire?
Lorraine
Which portion of the empire was ceded to Lothar?
Century of Iron
Characterized by constant fighting
Saracens
1. Southern pirates from North Africa
2. Name means Arab/Muslim
3. Raid much of the Mediterranean Coast
Magyars
1. From the east (Mongolia)
2. Invade Western France
3. Defeated in 955 by Otto
Hungaria
Where do the Magyars end up settling?
955
When were the Magyars defeated?
Problem with Magyar settlement of Hungaria
Sandwiched between the Northern and Southern Slavs
Northern Slavs
1. Speak Latin
2. Become Christian and follow the Pope
Southern Slavs
1. Speak Greek
2. Follow Constantinople
Vikings
1. "Northmen" from Norway and Sweden
2. Raiding pirates
3. Small disconnected group: use boats for attacks
4. Normandy is ceded to them if they convert
Rollo
Cedes Normandy to Vikings if they convert
Encastellation
The emergence of strong men who lead a fortification process due to local instability and threats
Seigneurie
Complete control over surrounding area (Lordship)
Lordship
1. Laws
2. Ability
3. Power
Feudalism
A term to describe feudal society, all political, economic, and social institutions, revolve around the holding of land in return for military land
Fief/Benefice
Land given in return for military service
Vassalage
Relationship of mutual loyalties (between elite classes) and obligations between a lord and a subordinate warrior
Vassal
Subordinate warrior in vassalage relationship
Ceremony of Commendation
1. Homage of fealty
2. Relics (bones)
3. There may be a bishop present-charters
4. Sounded like a wedding (pledging allegiance)
Feudal Hierarchy
Kings
Dukes
Counts
Marcher Counts
Bishops
Fiefs
Margraves
Marquis
Earls
Three divisions of Marcher Counts
Margraves
German Marcher Counts
Marquis
In charge of Frontier areas of France
Marcher Counts
In charge of frontier areas
Counts
In charge of counties
Dukes
1. Dux, ducis, general
2. Were the military presence in hierarchy
Bishops/Abbots
1. Swear oaths of vassalage in order to gain fiefs
2. Combination of Church and Secular Society
Earls
English Marcher Counts
Emergence of warlords as bishops
The___________was brought about by the mixing of the Church and secular society.
Subfeudianation
Fief broken up into tiny units
Multiple vassalage
1. Swearing to two different people.
2. In combat fight for the liege (primary) lords
Social Values
Derived from the experience of the mountain warriors.
Fides
"the faith"
850-1000
Century of Iron
Domestication of fighting
Locals and low level fighting
Robber Barons
1. Younger sons with no land or wealth
2. Fight neighbors for gain
Peace of God
Bishops in Southern France gather and invite local clergy and relics. Invite all warrior bureaucrats and preach at them and threaten to excommunicate them if they do not follow these rules:
1. Cannot harm peasants
2. Cannot harm cleric
3. Cannot hurt church property
Lords
Who has the most authority in a feudal society?
Truce of God
1. Republishes Peace of God
2. Adds Rule 4: You can only fight on certain days
3. Rule 4 brings about the emergence of fightingsport
Chivalry
1. From Chevelier: the manner of conduct proper to a king
2. Being a good Christian
3. Restraining exercise of violence: moderation
4. Produces a "new knighthood"
Song of Deeds
Sung, not written down until later c. 1100-1200
Oral performers
1. Spoken performances that lead away from Latin and lead to Latin Vernacular (French)
2. Most were written in France about Charlemagne and look back at unrestrained violence
Scamic Preoccupation
1. Damascus Blade
2. Helmet of Saracen
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