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The study of the use of punishment for criminal acts


The term first used to describe secure facilities used to hold offenders serving a criminal sentence; still used today for some older or highly secure prisons


The range of community and institutional sanctions, tratment programs, and services for managing criminal offenders

Penal Code

A legislative authorization to provide a specific range of punishment for a specific crime

Ceasare Beccaria

An Italian theorist who in the eighteenth century first suggested linking crime causation to punishments and became known as the founder of the classical school of criminology

Classical School

The theory linking crime causation to punishment based on offenders' free will and hedonism

Jeremy Bentham

Creator of the hedonistic calculus suggesting that punishments outweight the pleasure criminals get from committing their crime

Hedonistic Calculus

The idea that the main objective of an intelligent person is to achieve the most pleasure and the least pain and that individuals are constantly calculating the pulses and minuses of their potential actions

Positive School

The belief that criminals do not have complete choice over their criminal actions and may commit acts that are beyond their control

Ceasare Lombroso

The Italian physician who in the nineteenth century founded the positive school


The existence of features common in the early stages of human evolution, implied the idea that criminals are born, and criminal behavior is predetermined

Neoclassical School

A compromise between classical and positive schools; while holding offenders accountable for their crimes, allowing for some consideration of mitigatin and aggrivating circumstances


Used in England during the seventtenth and eighteent centuries to remove criminals from society by sending them to British colonies such as America

John Howard

The sheriff of Bedfordshire, England, who encouraged reform of English jails in the lat 1700's

Walnut Street Jail

The first penitentiary in the United States

Pennsylvania System

The "seperate and silent" system of prison operations emphasizing reformation and avoidance of criminal contamination

Auburn System

The congregate and silent operation of prisons, in which inmates were allowed to work together during the day, but had to stay separate and silent at other times

Irish System

A four-staged system of graduated release from prison and return to the community; the stages were solitary confinement, sepcial prison, open institutions, and ticket of leave

Reformatory Era

An environment emphasizing reformation that expanded education and vocational programs and focused offenders' attention on their future

Industrial Prison Era

Prison operations with emphasis on having inmates work and produce products that could help to make the prisons self-sustaining

Period of Transition

An ear of prison operations in which enforced idleness, lack of professional programs, and excessive size, and overcrowding of prisons resulted in an increase in prisoner discontent and prison riots

Hands-off Doctrine

An advoidance by the U.S. Supreme court of judicial intervention in the operations of prisons and the judgement of correctional administrators

Rehabilitative Era

An era of prison management emphasizing the professionalizing of staff through recruitment and training implementation of many self-improvement programs of prison management

Medical Model

A theory of corrections that offenders were sick, inflicted with problems that caused their criminality, and needed to be diagnosed and treated, and that rehabilitative programs would resolve offenders' problems and prepare them for release into the community able to be productive and crime-free


A belief that after offenders complete their treatment in prison they need transitional care, and that the community must be involved in their successful return to society

Retributive Era

An ear of corrections that emphasizes holding offenders accountable for their acts and being tough on criminals while keeping them isolated from law-abiding citizens and making them serve "hard" time


The correctional goal emphasizing the infliction of pain or suffering


Infliction of punishment on those who deserve to be punished

Test of Proportionality

The result of the 1983 case of Solem v. Helm; a test used to guide sentencing based on the gravity of the offense and consistency of the severity of punishment

Specific Deterrence

The effect of punishment on an individual offender that prevents that person from committing future crimes

General Detterence

The recognition that criminal acts result in punishment, and the effect of that recognition on society that prevents future crimes


Reducing offenders' ability or capacity to commit further crimes

Selective Incapacitation

Incarceration of high-risk offenders for preventative reasons based on what they are expected to do, not what they have already done


A programmed effort to alter the attitudes and behaviors of inmates and improve their likelihood of becoming law-abiding citizens


The state of relapse that occurs when offendes complete their criminal punishment and then continue to commit crimes


Acts by which criminals make right of repay society or their victims for their wrongs

Victims' Movement

The criminal justice system's recognition that victims should be involved in the process of sentencing criminals

Resorative Justice

Models of sentencing that shift the focus away from punishment of the offender and emphasize the victim by holding offenders accountable for the harm they caused and finding opportunties for them to repair the damge


The imposition of a criminal sanction by a judicial authority


Crime that is punishible by a year or more of incarceration


Crimes that are punishible by less than a year of incarceration

Pretrial Diversion

The suspension of criminal process while the offender is provided the chance to participate in treatment programs and avoid further criminal activity

Preventive Detention

Detaining an accused person in jails to protect the community from crimes that are likely to commit if sat free pending trial


The pledge of money or property in exchange for a promise to return for further criminal processing


A person who is legally liable for the conduct of another; someone who guarantees the accused person's appearance in court

Release on Recognizance

Release from jails based only on the defendant's promise to appear for further court procedures

Manhattan Bail Project

A program started in the 160's to assist judges in identifying individuals who were good candidates to be released on their own recognizance without commerical or monetary bond

Supervised Pretrial Release Program

Supervision of offenders released on their own recognizance, similar to supervision while on probation

Plea Bargaining

An agreement in which the defendant enters a plea of guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence in comparison to the sentence allowable for the charged offense

Presentence Investigation

A report used during sentencing process that details the background of a convicted offenders, to include criminals, social, education, employment, mental and physical health and other significant factors

Economic Sanctions

A requirement that an offeder pay a fine or restitution to the victim as a part of his or her sentence


A prison sentence that is suspended on the condition that the offender follows certain prescribed rules and commits no further crimes

Intermediate Sanctions

Midranges dispositions that fall between probation and imprisonment

Short-Term Confinement

A sentence in a jail for one year or less


A sentence in a prison of a year or more

Capital Punishment

Punishment for the most serious crimes (generally first-degree murder); most states and the federal government provide for the death penalty

Concurrent Sentences

Sentence that run at the same time

Consecutive Sentences

Sentences that run one after the other

Indeterminate Sentences

Sentences that have a minimum and maximum time to serve; a decision by a release authority determines the actual time served within that range

Determinate Sentences

Sentences of fixed terms

Good Time

Afford inmates the opportunity to reduce their eligibility for release by good behavior in prison

Truth in Sentencing

Requires completion of 85% of the sentence before prisoners are eligible for release

Judicial Form of Sentencing

Judges have primary discretion in creating the sentence

Administrative Form of Sentencing

Administrative bodies(correctional officials and parole/release boards) have primary discretion in granting good time and determining the release time of offenders

Legislative Form of Sentencing

Legislative bodies create very structured sentencing codes, and therefore have primary discretion in the length of time served by offenders

Mandatory Minimum Senteces

A requirement that for certain types of offenders, there must be a setence to prison for at least a minimum term

Three-Strike Laws

A legislative mandate that judges sentence third-time felons to extremely long or life prison sentences

Presumptive Sentencing

A predetermined range of a minimum term for a specific crime for a "typical" offender, with allowances for mitigating and aggravatins circumstances to be considered

Sentencing Guidelines

Structued sentences , based on measures of offense severity and criminal history, to determine the length of the term of imprisonment

Drug Courts

An alternative to traditional court models to deal with the underlying drug problem as the basis of the offenders' criminality


An early English term for a jail


Locally operated correctional facilities that confine persons before or after adjudication


Refers to a small jail with only a few cells and no accomodations for food services, medical care, or recreation


The elected official who oversses both policing activities within the county and the operation of the jail

Regional Jail

A jail that serves mode that one county and is overseen by a regional jail commission

Incarceration Rates

The number of persons per 100,000 that are in jail or prison

Length of Stay

The time served in a jail or prison by any inmate

Objective Classification Systems

Statistical approaches to consider the risk of escape and violence by inamtes

First-Generation Jails

A linear design was used for housing inmates, in which cells are aligned in long, straight rows, with walkways in the front of the cells for jail correctional officers to walk intermittently to observe what is going on in the cells

Podular Designs

A design of prisoner housing that provides common day room areas in the center of the unit to allow inmates to watch television or play table games, thereby getting out of their cells and reducing idleness and tension; there designs make it easier for officers to view inmate activities in the cells and the dayrooms from one central location

Secong-Generation Jails

Jails using podular housing designs and remote supervision; officers are located in a secure control room overlooking the cells and day room, with electronic controls to open and close individual cell doors

Third-Generation Jails

Jail designs without remote control centers, in which correctional officers are located in the housing unit in direct contact with inmates

Direct Supervision

A style of inmate supervision with staff located in direct contact with inmates; requires staff to continuously supervise and communicate with inmates, reducing tension and avoiding the development of conflicts between inmates or inmates and staff

Bell v. Wolfish

A 1979 U.S. Supreme Court case in which the punitive intent standard was adopted for considering violations of the Eigth Amendment regarding jail operations

Suicide Prevention Programs

Jail and prison programs that include early detection of sucidide risks, staff education to recognize signs of potential suicide, and procedures for managing inmates that are now suicidal

Suicide Watch

Management of sucidal inmates who are placed in a specially designed cell and have constant supervision

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