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86 terms

Quiz study guide

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Penology
The study of the use of punishment for criminal acts
Penitentiary
The term first used to describe secure facilities used to hold offenders serving a criminal sentence; still used today for some older or highly secure prisons
Corrections
The range of community and institutional sanctions, tratment programs, and services for managing criminal offenders
Penal Code
A legislative authorization to provide a specific range of punishment for a specific crime
Ceasare Beccaria
An Italian theorist who in the eighteenth century first suggested linking crime causation to punishments and became known as the founder of the classical school of criminology
Classical School
The theory linking crime causation to punishment based on offenders' free will and hedonism
Jeremy Bentham
Creator of the hedonistic calculus suggesting that punishments outweight the pleasure criminals get from committing their crime
Hedonistic Calculus
The idea that the main objective of an intelligent person is to achieve the most pleasure and the least pain and that individuals are constantly calculating the pulses and minuses of their potential actions
Positive School
The belief that criminals do not have complete choice over their criminal actions and may commit acts that are beyond their control
Ceasare Lombroso
The Italian physician who in the nineteenth century founded the positive school
Atacism
The existence of features common in the early stages of human evolution, implied the idea that criminals are born, and criminal behavior is predetermined
Neoclassical School
A compromise between classical and positive schools; while holding offenders accountable for their crimes, allowing for some consideration of mitigatin and aggrivating circumstances
Transportation
Used in England during the seventtenth and eighteent centuries to remove criminals from society by sending them to British colonies such as America
John Howard
The sheriff of Bedfordshire, England, who encouraged reform of English jails in the lat 1700's
Walnut Street Jail
The first penitentiary in the United States
Pennsylvania System
The "seperate and silent" system of prison operations emphasizing reformation and avoidance of criminal contamination
Auburn System
The congregate and silent operation of prisons, in which inmates were allowed to work together during the day, but had to stay separate and silent at other times
Irish System
A four-staged system of graduated release from prison and return to the community; the stages were solitary confinement, sepcial prison, open institutions, and ticket of leave
Reformatory Era
An environment emphasizing reformation that expanded education and vocational programs and focused offenders' attention on their future
Industrial Prison Era
Prison operations with emphasis on having inmates work and produce products that could help to make the prisons self-sustaining
Period of Transition
An ear of prison operations in which enforced idleness, lack of professional programs, and excessive size, and overcrowding of prisons resulted in an increase in prisoner discontent and prison riots
Hands-off Doctrine
An advoidance by the U.S. Supreme court of judicial intervention in the operations of prisons and the judgement of correctional administrators
Rehabilitative Era
An era of prison management emphasizing the professionalizing of staff through recruitment and training implementation of many self-improvement programs of prison management
Medical Model
A theory of corrections that offenders were sick, inflicted with problems that caused their criminality, and needed to be diagnosed and treated, and that rehabilitative programs would resolve offenders' problems and prepare them for release into the community able to be productive and crime-free
Reintegration
A belief that after offenders complete their treatment in prison they need transitional care, and that the community must be involved in their successful return to society
Retributive Era
An ear of corrections that emphasizes holding offenders accountable for their acts and being tough on criminals while keeping them isolated from law-abiding citizens and making them serve "hard" time
Punishment
The correctional goal emphasizing the infliction of pain or suffering
Retribution
Infliction of punishment on those who deserve to be punished
Test of Proportionality
The result of the 1983 case of Solem v. Helm; a test used to guide sentencing based on the gravity of the offense and consistency of the severity of punishment
Specific Deterrence
The effect of punishment on an individual offender that prevents that person from committing future crimes
General Detterence
The recognition that criminal acts result in punishment, and the effect of that recognition on society that prevents future crimes
Incapacitation
Reducing offenders' ability or capacity to commit further crimes
Selective Incapacitation
Incarceration of high-risk offenders for preventative reasons based on what they are expected to do, not what they have already done
Rehabilitation
A programmed effort to alter the attitudes and behaviors of inmates and improve their likelihood of becoming law-abiding citizens
Recidivism
The state of relapse that occurs when offendes complete their criminal punishment and then continue to commit crimes
Restitution
Acts by which criminals make right of repay society or their victims for their wrongs
Victims' Movement
The criminal justice system's recognition that victims should be involved in the process of sentencing criminals
Resorative Justice
Models of sentencing that shift the focus away from punishment of the offender and emphasize the victim by holding offenders accountable for the harm they caused and finding opportunties for them to repair the damge
Sentencing
The imposition of a criminal sanction by a judicial authority
Felony
Crime that is punishible by a year or more of incarceration
Misdemeanors
Crimes that are punishible by less than a year of incarceration
Pretrial Diversion
The suspension of criminal process while the offender is provided the chance to participate in treatment programs and avoid further criminal activity
Preventive Detention
Detaining an accused person in jails to protect the community from crimes that are likely to commit if sat free pending trial
Bail
The pledge of money or property in exchange for a promise to return for further criminal processing
Surety
A person who is legally liable for the conduct of another; someone who guarantees the accused person's appearance in court
Release on Recognizance
Release from jails based only on the defendant's promise to appear for further court procedures
Manhattan Bail Project
A program started in the 160's to assist judges in identifying individuals who were good candidates to be released on their own recognizance without commerical or monetary bond
Supervised Pretrial Release Program
Supervision of offenders released on their own recognizance, similar to supervision while on probation
Plea Bargaining
An agreement in which the defendant enters a plea of guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence in comparison to the sentence allowable for the charged offense
Presentence Investigation
A report used during sentencing process that details the background of a convicted offenders, to include criminals, social, education, employment, mental and physical health and other significant factors
Economic Sanctions
A requirement that an offeder pay a fine or restitution to the victim as a part of his or her sentence
Probation
A prison sentence that is suspended on the condition that the offender follows certain prescribed rules and commits no further crimes
Intermediate Sanctions
Midranges dispositions that fall between probation and imprisonment
Short-Term Confinement
A sentence in a jail for one year or less
Imprisonment
A sentence in a prison of a year or more
Capital Punishment
Punishment for the most serious crimes (generally first-degree murder); most states and the federal government provide for the death penalty
Concurrent Sentences
Sentence that run at the same time
Consecutive Sentences
Sentences that run one after the other
Indeterminate Sentences
Sentences that have a minimum and maximum time to serve; a decision by a release authority determines the actual time served within that range
Determinate Sentences
Sentences of fixed terms
Good Time
Afford inmates the opportunity to reduce their eligibility for release by good behavior in prison
Truth in Sentencing
Requires completion of 85% of the sentence before prisoners are eligible for release
Judicial Form of Sentencing
Judges have primary discretion in creating the sentence
Administrative Form of Sentencing
Administrative bodies(correctional officials and parole/release boards) have primary discretion in granting good time and determining the release time of offenders
Legislative Form of Sentencing
Legislative bodies create very structured sentencing codes, and therefore have primary discretion in the length of time served by offenders
Mandatory Minimum Senteces
A requirement that for certain types of offenders, there must be a setence to prison for at least a minimum term
Three-Strike Laws
A legislative mandate that judges sentence third-time felons to extremely long or life prison sentences
Presumptive Sentencing
A predetermined range of a minimum term for a specific crime for a "typical" offender, with allowances for mitigating and aggravatins circumstances to be considered
Sentencing Guidelines
Structued sentences , based on measures of offense severity and criminal history, to determine the length of the term of imprisonment
Drug Courts
An alternative to traditional court models to deal with the underlying drug problem as the basis of the offenders' criminality
Gaol
An early English term for a jail
Jails
Locally operated correctional facilities that confine persons before or after adjudication
Lockup
Refers to a small jail with only a few cells and no accomodations for food services, medical care, or recreation
Sheriff
The elected official who oversses both policing activities within the county and the operation of the jail
Regional Jail
A jail that serves mode that one county and is overseen by a regional jail commission
Incarceration Rates
The number of persons per 100,000 that are in jail or prison
Length of Stay
The time served in a jail or prison by any inmate
Objective Classification Systems
Statistical approaches to consider the risk of escape and violence by inamtes
First-Generation Jails
A linear design was used for housing inmates, in which cells are aligned in long, straight rows, with walkways in the front of the cells for jail correctional officers to walk intermittently to observe what is going on in the cells
Podular Designs
A design of prisoner housing that provides common day room areas in the center of the unit to allow inmates to watch television or play table games, thereby getting out of their cells and reducing idleness and tension; there designs make it easier for officers to view inmate activities in the cells and the dayrooms from one central location
Secong-Generation Jails
Jails using podular housing designs and remote supervision; officers are located in a secure control room overlooking the cells and day room, with electronic controls to open and close individual cell doors
Third-Generation Jails
Jail designs without remote control centers, in which correctional officers are located in the housing unit in direct contact with inmates
Direct Supervision
A style of inmate supervision with staff located in direct contact with inmates; requires staff to continuously supervise and communicate with inmates, reducing tension and avoiding the development of conflicts between inmates or inmates and staff
Bell v. Wolfish
A 1979 U.S. Supreme Court case in which the punitive intent standard was adopted for considering violations of the Eigth Amendment regarding jail operations
Suicide Prevention Programs
Jail and prison programs that include early detection of sucidide risks, staff education to recognize signs of potential suicide, and procedures for managing inmates that are now suicidal
Suicide Watch
Management of sucidal inmates who are placed in a specially designed cell and have constant supervision