132 terms

4th Grade ISAT Science Vocabulary

A set of words to know for ISAT Science.
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

living things
things that take in food, water, and gases, reproduce, grow, and respond to the environment.
mammal
warm-blooded animal with fur that gives birth to live babies and feeds them milk.
bird
warm blooded animal with feathers that lays eggs.
reptile
cold blooded animal with dry, scaly, skin that lays eggs.
fish
cold-blooded animal with scales and gills that lays eggs in the water.
amphibian
cold-blooded animal with smooth skin that lives on both land and in the water.
insect
invertebrate animal with six legs. They have segmented bodies and some have wings.
vertebrate
an animal with a backbone.
invertebrate
an animal with no backbone.
exoskeleton
the hard outer shell of some invertebrates.
metamorphosis
the change in body shape that insects and amphibians go through as they develop.
insect metamorphosis
Egg, larva, pupa, adult.
larva
the caterpillar stage of a butterfly.
pupa
the chrysalis, or cocoon, stage of a butterfly.
frog metamorphosis
egg, tadpole, young adult, adult.
plant needs
sunlight, water, air, nutrients.
animal needs
food, water, air, shelter
inherited traits
traits that are passed down from parents to their offspring. Examples are eye color and number of limbs in animals, and flower color in plants.
learned traits
traits that are learned, like being able to ride a bike.
producers
organisms that make their own food using sunlight. Includes all plants.
consumers
organisms that eat other organisms for food.
decomposers
organisms that break down dead plants and animals. Includes worms and fungi.
herbivores
consumers that eat only plants.
carnivores
consumers that eat only animals.
omnivores
consumers that eat both plants and animals.
ecosystem
all of the living and nonliving things interacting together in an area.
desert
a very hot, dry ecosystem.
rainforest
a very warm, wet ecosystem with lots of trees.
temperate forest
a forest ecosystem with different weather for each season.
ocean
a salt water ecosystem
lake
a fresh water ecosystem.
nocturnal
active at night.
diurnal
active during the day.
camouflage
an adaptation that helps organisms hide by blending in with their environment.
adaptation
a special structure or skills that helps an organism survive in its environment.
food chain
a diagram showing how energy is passed from one organism to the next.
food web
a group of overlapping food chains.
warm-blooded
body temperature stays the same all the time.
cold-blooded
body temperature rises and falls with the temperature of the environment.
hibernation
going into a deep sleep for the winter
migration
traveling to a different area in search of food or nicer weather.
pollution
harmful things in the water, air, or on land.
natural resources
things from the earth that organisms use to survive. Air, water, space, sunlight, and food are a few examples.
The 3 R's
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle - These are ways that people can protect the environment.
solid
matter that does not change shape when put into a new container. Particles are packed tightly and move slowly.
liquid
matter that changes shape but not volume when put into a new container. Particles slip and slide around.
gas
matter that changes shape and volume when put into a new container. Particles move very fast and are spread far apart.
evaporation
the change from liquid to gas.
condensation
the change from gas to liquid.
freezing
the change from liquid to solid.
melting
the change from solid to liquid.
thermometer
a tool that measures temperature.
mass
a measurement of the amount of matter in something.
volume
a measurement of the amount of space something takes up.
graduated cylinder
a tool used for measuring volume.
balance
a tool used for measuring mass.
ruler
a tool used for measuring length.
expand
increase in volume because of heat.
contract
decrease in volume because of cold temperatures.
density
a measurement of the amount of matter in a certain space.
magnet
attracts iron, but not paper, plastic, aluminum, or copper.
conductor
something that lets heat and electricity go through it.
insulator
something that does not let heat or electricity go through it.
static electricity
an electrical charge caused by rubbing certain object together, like a balloon on someone's hair.
attract
force pulling two objects together, such opposite charges (positive and negative), or opposite magnetis poles (north and south).
repel
force pushing two objects apart. This happens to objects with "like" charges (positive and positive or negative and negative) or the "like" magnetic poles (north and north or south and south).
types of energy
electrical, heat, light, and mechanical.
circuit
the path electricity travels from the battery, to the light bulb, and back to the battery.
closed circuit
a circuit with no breaks in the path of the electricity - the bulb will light.
open circuit
a circuit with one or more breaks in the path of the electricity - the bulb will not light.
white
the color seen when an object reflects all colors of light back to the eye.
black
the color seen when an object absorbs all colors of light and reflects no light back to the eye.
red
the color seen when an object absorbs all colors of light except the color red.
reflection
when light bounces off of an object.
refraction
when light is bent by a lens.
prism
breaks white light into all the colors of the rainbow.
force
a push or a pull.
balanced forces
when the forces are equal on all sides of an object so its motion does not change. Equilibrium.
unbalanced forces
when forces on an object are unequal, causing the object to start or stop moving.
friction
the force created when the two surfaces rub against each other.
gravity
the force that pulls objects toward each other. It is what causes objects to be pulled toward the Earth.
lever
a simple machine that lifts objects by using a plank that is resting on a fulcrum.
inclined plane
a ramp that is a type of simple machine. Used to raise objects up or down.
pulley
a simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a groove in a wheel. Used to raise objects up or down.
screw
a simple machine that is an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder - used to fasten objects together.
wheel and axle
a simple machine that has a center rod attached to a wheel.
renewable
resources that can be replaced.
nonrenewable
resources that cannot be replaced.
fossil fuels
coal, oil and natural gas.
erosion
The slow process of moving sediment from one place to another, usually by moving water.
weathering
The slow process of breaking down rocks into smaller pieces.
earthquake
the shaking that results from the movement of the plates that make up the Earth's surface.
volcano
mountain created as lava erupts from inside the earth.
landslide
the sudden movement of rock and soil down a slope.
fossil
the remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock.
igneous
rock formed from cooled magma or lava.
sedimentary
rock formed when layers of sediments were pressed and cemented together.
metamorphic
rock formed by heat and pressure deep inside the Earth.
minerals
what makes up rocks. they have different colors, hardness, streak colors, and luster (shininess).
river delta
the place where a river deposits the sediments it picks up, forming a triangle shape.
flooding
when water cannot be absorbed into the land and overflows rivers. Causes damage but also deposits new soil on plains making fertile farmland.
cirrus
wispy, feathery clouds high in the sky.
cumulus
clouds that look like fluffy, rounded piles of cotton.
stratus
Clouds that form in low, flat layers, blanketing all or most of sky.
precipitation
water falling from the sky as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
anemometer
tool used to measure wind speed.
rain gauge
tool used to measure rainfall.
barometer
tool used to measure air pressure.
hygrometer
tool used to measure humidity.
low pressure system
air pressure that comes with high wind, warm temperatures and storms.
high pressure system
air pressure that comes with clear skies and calm weather.
continent
large land mass
mountain
land mass with high peaks.
valley
the low land between hills or mountains.
island
land surrounded on all sides by water.
moon
the natural satellite of the Earth, which does not produce its own light.
planets
the large round bodies that revolve around the Sun.
solar eclipse
when the moon moves between the Earth and the Sun, blocking the sun's light.
lunar eclipse
when the Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the Moon.
full moon
when the entire moon is visible.
new moon
when no part of the moon is lit by the sun, making it dark.
moon phases
the different shapes we see of the moon each night, caused by the moon's changing position.
Planet Order
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
Revolve
Earth's motion around the Sun. Takes 365 1/4 days.
Rotate
Earth's spinning motion on its axis. Takes 24 hours.
Leap Day
Every four years we add this to our calendar to account for the 365 1/4 days it takes Earth to revolve around the Sun.
axis
the imaginary line around which the Earth spins. It is tilted.
seasons
different weather patterns at different times of year, caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis.
constellation
a group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky. Used for navigation, like a map.
galaxy
a group of billions of stars clustered together.
Milky Way
our galaxy, which gets its name from the white streak of stars we see in the sky.
weight
a measure of the force of gravity on an object. On Earth, mass and weight are the same. But in places with different gravity, weight will change.