Josiah strong, "Our Country"
Strong argued that America and its people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon. Combined nativist beliefs with overseas economic and cultural expansionism to become a best seller and a reference point for later expansionists.
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan
In 1890, he wrote "The Influence of Sea Power upon History." He was a proponent of building a larger navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on. Mahan linked the growing productivity of the U.S. factories and farms to the need for a great battleship fleet that could protect the nation's foreign commerce, destroy an opponent's commerce in battle, and annihilate the opponent's fleet in decisive combat.
De Lome Letter
Written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lome, it was stolen from the mail and delivered to Hearst. He had called McKinley weak and bitter. The yellow journalists played it up.
Annexation of Hawaii
By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. President Grover Cleveland did not want to forcibly annex Hawaii; he believed the annexation overstepped the national government's power. In July 1898, during William McKinley's first administration, Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.
Teller Amendment, April 1898
In order to resassure anti-imperialist elements on the eve of declaring war on Spaon, Senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado drafted an amendment to the declaration of war and Congress adopted the measure pledging that the United States had no designs on remaining in Cuba following conclusion of the conflict nor had any intention to annex the island.
Introduced by Connecticut Senator Orville Platt in March, 1901. The amendment ceded to the U.S. the naval base in Cuba (Guantanamo Bay), ensured U.S. intervention in Cuban affairs when the U.S. deemed necessary, and prohibited Cuba from negotiating treaties with any country other than the United States. Arbrogated in 1934.
Emilio Aguinaldo, Philippine Insurrection
Led a Fillipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Phillipines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence. Led an unsuccessful three-year armed resistance against the United States.
Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door notes, September 1899
During the 1890s aggressive European nations had carved China into economic "spheres of influence" in which they exerted exclusive political and economic control. Secretary Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportuniries, specifically in the China market, essentially creating an "open door." Hay claimed it a victory but all recipients of the notes rejected the idea of equal access.
Boxer Rebellion, 1900
A secret super patriotic group of Chinese called the Boxers (their symbol was a fist) revolted against all foreigners in their midst. In the process of laying siege to foreign legations in Beijing hundreds of missionaries and foreign diplomats were murdered. Several nations including the United States sent military forces to quell the rebellion. American participation was seen as a violation of its noninvolvement policies.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Latin American nations were in deep financial trouble and could not pay their debts to European creditors. Roosevelt declared the U.S. would intervene and occupy the ports of those countries that were deliquent in paying their debts and manage the collection of customs taxes until European debts were satisfied. U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Manchuria after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials and businessmen. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
Jacob Riis, "How the Other Half Lives"
Early 1900's muckraking writer/photographer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. His most popular work, "How the Other Half Lives," became a pivotal work that precipitated much needed reforms and made him famous. Jacob Riis's photography, taken up to help him document the plight of the poor, made him an inportant figure in the history of documentary photography.
Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), "The Shame of the Cities"
American journalist was one of the most famous and influential practitioners of the journalistic style called muckraking. He specialized in investigating government corruption, and two collections of his articles were published as "The Shame of the Cities" and "The Struggle for Self-Government."
Ida Tarbell (1857-1944)
One of the leading muckrakers, she is remembered for her investigations of industry published in "McClure's" magazine. Her 1904 book, "History of Standard Oil Company," exposed the monopolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company and strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies.
John Spargo, "The Bitter Cry of the Children"
Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Probably the most influential and certainly the most widely read of the Progressive-era exposes of child labor was Spargo's, "The Bitter Cry of the Children" (1906). Spargo was a British granite cutter who became a union organizer and socialist and gained his formal education through extension courses at Oxford and Cambridge. In 1901, he emigrated to the United States where he became a leader of the conservative wing of the American Socialist Party. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
On March 25, 1911, a fire broke out in a New York City sweatshop run by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company. The fire started on the eighth floor of the Asch Building and quickly spread upward to the two top floors of the building. Some workers, having no way of opening the doors that had been locked to prevent theft, leaped from windows to their deaths. Fire truck ladders, then able to reach only six stories were of little help, and the building's overloaded fire escape collapsed. One hundred forty-six individuals, mostly young immigrant women, died in the tragedy. The disaster touched off a national movement for safer working conditions, led to the creation of health and safety legislation, including factory fire codes and child-labor laws, and helped shape future labor laws.
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
Meat Inspection Act, 1906
Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing State lines.
Upton Sinclair, "The Jungle"
Upton Sinclaire was a famous novelist and social crusader from California, who pioneered the king of journalism known as "muckraking." His best-known novel was "The Jungle" which was an expose of the appalling and unsanitary conditions in the meat-packing industry. "The Jungle" was influential in obtaining passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin. A founder of the Progressive Movement, he was a spearhead for political reform in Wisconsin and the nation for 25 years. Unwilling to compromise on principle, "Fighting Bob" LaFollette earned the deep admiration of his supporters and the hatred of many foes. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1905, he fought the same forces of privilege he had defeated in Wisconsin. A few progressive Republicans joined them, and they often held the balance of power in a Senate closely divided between the two parties. LaFollette opposed the protective Payne-Aldrich tariff and worked to regulate the railroads and other industries. He sought the GOP presidential nomination on 1908 and 1912. He founded LaFollette's Weekly Magazine (1909) and the National Progressive Republican League (1911).
Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, or abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
Federal Reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed during Wilson's presidency.
Underwood-Simmons Tariff, 1913
Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad. The most significant tariff reduction since the Civil War.
Clayton Antitrust Act, labor's Magna Carta
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved. It expempted labor unions from prosecution as monopolies that could be found in restraint of trade.
Adamson Act, 1916
Wilson pushed passage of this act that mandated an eight hour workday and time and a half for overtime.
Pancho Villa, General Pershing
1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.
British passenger liner sunk off the Irish coast by a German submarine on May 7, 1915. In the sinking, 1,198 persons lost their lives, 128 of whom were U.S. citizens. A warning to Americans against taking passage on British vessels, signed by the Imperial German Embassy, appeared in morning papers on the day the vessel was scheduled to sail from New York, but too late to accomplish its purpose. The vessel was unarmed, though the Germans made a point of the fact that it carried munitions for the Allies. The considerable sympathy for Germany that had previously existed in the United States to a large extent disappeared after the disaster, and there were demands from many for an immediate declaration of war. President Wilson chose the course of diplomacy. After prolonged negotions and to discontinue sinking passenger ships without warning. The immediate crises between the United States and Germany subsided. The incident, however, contributed to the rise of American sentiment for the entry of the United States into World War I, with recruitment posters two years later urging potential enlistees to "Remember the Lusitania!"
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWi (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
War Industries Board
The most powerful agency of the war, it had to satisfy the allied needs for goods and direct American industries in what to produce. Headed by Bernard Baruch.
Herbert Hoover, Food Administration
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.
Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918
Brought fourth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WWI on June 28, 1919. In the resulting treaty the victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
League of Nations
A concept for an international peace keeping organization devised by President Wilson. It reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world count.
Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
"Irreconcilables": Borah, Johnson, LaFollette
Some senators known as "irreconcilables" opposed the Treaty because it committed the U.S. to the League of Nations. This group of 16 senators could not be reconciled to, or made to accept, the Treaty. They argued that joining the League would threaten American independence in making foreign policy. The handful of Senate "irreconcilables," led by senators William Borah of Idaho, Hiram Johnson of Califorania, and Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin, were basically isolationists who were uncompromising in their opposition to the U.S. membership in the League of Nations.