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Ch. 6 and 7


two or more kinds of tissues grouped together and performing specialized functions constitute this

What are the functions of the skin?

Protective covering
Slows water loss
Regulates body temperature
Houses sensory receptors
Synthesizes chemicals (including Vit D)
Contains immune cells
Excretes small amounts of waste

What are the 2 layers of skin?

The epidermis and the dermis

What structures are contained in the epidermis?

composed entirely of stratified squamous epithelium; stratum basale-enables the cells to divide and grow;; there are four layers: stratum basale which is the deepest layer; stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and the stratum corneum;; stratum lucidum is in the thickened skin of the palms and soles

What structures are contained in the dermis?

composed of connective tissues, smooth muscle tissue (and fibers), nervous tissue, and blood;; contains dermal papillae, irregular dense connective tissue, muscle cells, nerve cell processes, specialized sensory receptors (Pacinian Corpuscles, Meissner's Corpuscles, Free Nerve Endings), blood vessels, hair follicles, and glands

Subcutaneous Layer

is beneath the dermis and contains masses of areolar and adipose tissues that bind the skin to underlying organs;; also contains major blood vessels that supply the skin


the process in which cells begin to harden ; strands of tough, fibrous, waterproof keratin proteins that are synthesized and stored in the cell


specialized cells in the deeper epidermis where the blood supply is good and they produce the dark pigment melanin


provides skin color and absorbs ultraviolet radiation in sunlight preventing mutations in DNA of skin cells and other damaging effects

Cytocrine Secretion

through this, melanocytes can transfer melanin granules into epidermal cells

Know the layers of the epidermis

Table 6.1 Page 174

Transdermal Patches

are clinical


produce hormone-like substances that stimulate development of T-lymphocytes


skin overlying bony projections - hip, heel, elbow, shoulder

Pacinian corpuscles

one of the specialized sensory receptors on the dermis -stimulated by heavy pressure

Meissner's Corpuscles

one of the specialized sensory receptors on the dermis - senses light touch

Free nerve endings

one of the specialized sensory receptors on the dermis - respond to temperature change or tissue damage that extends into the epidermis

Sweat Glands

pg. 180

What is the difference between eccrine and apocrine?

eccrine glands respond through life to body temp elevated by environmental heat or physical exercise; they secrete mostly water with small quantities of salts and wastes and are located on the forehead, neck, and back;;; apocrine glands develop a scent as metabolized by skin bacteria that become active at puberty; respond when emotionally upset, frightened, pain, and during sex; location is in the axillary regions, groin, and around the nipples; open into hair follicles

Sebaceous glands

groups of specialized epithelial cells; keep hair soft, pliable, and waterproof; located near or connected to hair follicles, everywhere but on palms and soles


mixture of fatty material and cellular debris; secreted into hair follicles and keeps hair soft, pliable, and waterproof


a needle injects ink into the dermis. The color is permanent because the dermis cells do not shed. To remove a tattoo, a laser shatters the ink molecules and the immune system removes the resulting debris. Earlier procedures= scraped away, frozen off, or cut away (all painful)

Hair follicle

page 178

What is the function of a hair follicle?

hair follicle extends from the surface into the dermis and contains the hair root, the portion of hair embedded in the skin. A hair grows from the base of a hair follicle when epidermal cells divide and older cells move outward and become keratinized

Structure of the nail

page 178

Function of the nail parts

protective coverings on the ends of fingers and toes; nail plate- overlies nail bed, nail bed- epithelial cells that are continuous with the surface of skin, lunula- whitish, half-moon shaped region at the base of a nail; the growing region---nail appearance mirrors health

Of what importance is the regulation of body temperature?

vital because even a slight shift can disrupt metabolic reactions; if too cold: blood vessels constrict, sweat glands remain inactive, and shivering occurs; if too hot: blood vessels dilate, and sweat glands secrete

What is the difference between hyper-thermia and hypothermia?

hyperthermia- abnormally high body temperature (fatigue, dizziness, headache, muscle cramps, nausea)
hypothermia- abnormally low body temperature (shivering and feeling of coldness progresses to mental confusion, lethargy, loss of reflexes and consciousness, eventually shutting down of major organs)

What are some genetic and environmental factors that affect skin color?

Genetic: Varying amounts of melanin and varying size of melanin granules
Environmental: Sunlight, UV light from sunlamps, X-rays (they darken existing melanin and stimulate melanocytes to produce more pigment and transfer it to epidermal cells

What is the most common disorder of sebaceous glands?



normal response to injury of stress

What happens when wounds heal?

Inflammation, blood vessels in the affected area dilate, become permeable, and allow fluid to leak into damaged tissues; the dilated blood vessels then provide the tissues with more nutrients and oxygen; the inflamed skin becomes red, swollen, warm, and painful to touch

What are the three kinds of burns?

1st degree - superficial partial thickness burn; 2nd degree - deep partial thickness burn; 3rd degree - full thickness burn

Explain a 1st degree burn

slightly burned, dermal vessels dilate (skin turns red), and healing occurs within a few days to 2 weeks

Explain a 2nd degree burn

result of exposure to hot objects, liquids, and flames; destroys some epidermis and some dermis, blisters appear, injured region moist, firm, color from dark red to waxy white, skin usually recover without scars unless an infections occurs

Explain a 3rd degree burn

destroys epidermis, dermis, and all accessory structures of the skin; immersion in hot liquids, prolonged exposure to hot objects, flames, corrosive chemicals; injured skin is dry, leathery, and it's color can be from red to black

What is the rule of nines?

subdivides the skin's surface into regions, each accounting for 9% of the total surface area; see page 187

What are bones composed of?

they are composed of several kinds of tissues which make them organs

What are the specific shapes of bones?

the shape of individual bones is closely related to their functions; they have processes, grooves and openings, and ends of bones

Processes (bony projections)

provide sites of attachment for ligaments and tendons

Grooves and openings

serve as passageways for blood vessels and nerves

Ends of bones

are modified to form joints with other bones (depression of one bone articulates with the process of another)

Long bones

long longitudinal axis and expanded ends
ex: forearms and thighs

Short bones

cubelike; widths and lengths roughly equal ex: wrists and ankles

Flat bones

platelike structures with broad surfaces ex: ribs, scapulae, and some skull bones

irregular bones

variety of shapes and are usually connected with other bones ex: vertebrae; facial bones

sesamoid (round) bones

small and nodular embedded within tendons adjacent to joints

What are the parts of a long bone?

epiphysis, diaphysis, periosteum


expanded portion at the end of bone which articulates to form a joint with another bone (it is covered with hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage); composed of spongy bone which consists of numerous branching bony plates


shaft of the bone; composed of compact bone which is tightly packed tissue


tough, vascular covering of fibrous tissue

What is the microscopic structure of compact bone?

Bone cells are called osteocytes and are in tiny, bony chambers called lacunae, which form concentric circles around central canals. Osteocytes trandport nutrients and wastes to and from nearby cells by means of cellular processes passing through canaliculi. The extracellular matrix of bone tissue is largely collagen and inorganic salts. Collagen gives bone its strength & resilience, and inorganic salts make it hard ad resistant to crushing.

What is the structure of spongy bone?

it is composed of osteocytes and extracellular matrix; has branching bony plates (trabeculae) that are very thin; the bone cells are not arranged around the central canals but instead lie within the trabeculae; spongy bone on ends of bones allows for compression

What are the 2 kinds of bone development?

Intramembranous ossification and Endochondral ossification

Intramembranous ossification

bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues, include broad, flat bones (skull bones= ex.)

Endochondral ossification

bones begin as hyaline cartilage, they form modles for future bones, these include most bones of the skeleton

Epiphyseal Plate

the plate that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis; the epiphyseal plate forms four layers (see page 198)

Homeostasis of bone tissue:

after intramembranous and endochondral bones form, the actions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts continually remodel them
osteoclasts- resorb bone
osteoblasts- replace bone

What are the factors that affect bone development, growth and repair?

deficiency of Vitamin A, Vitamin D and Vitamin C, insufficient growth hormone, physical stress (exercise), sex hormones, excessive growth hormone

What are the 6 different bone fractures?

greenstick fracture, fissured fracture, comminuted fracture, transverse fracture, oblique fracture, spiral fracture

Greenstick fracture

incomplete, and the break occurs on the convex surface of the bend on the bone

Fissured fracture

involves an incomplete longitudinal break

Comminuted fractre

complete and fragments the bone

Transverse fracture

complete, and the break occurs at a right angle to the axis of the bone

Oblique fracture

occurs at an angle other than a right angle to the axis of the bone

Spiral fracture

caused by twisting a bone excessively

Bone Fracture Repair

blood escapes from ruptured blood vessels and forms hematoma, spongy bone forms in regions close to developing blood vessels and fibrocartilage form in more distant regions, a bony callus replaces fibrocartilage, osteoclasts remove excess bone tissue, restoring new bone structure much like the original

What is bone function?

bones shape, support, and protect body structures
bones aid body movements
bones house tissues that produce blood cells
bones store various inorganic salts
**see screen shot

Axial skeleton

head, neck, and trunk

Appendicular skeleton

upper and lower limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle

Foramen Magnum

large opening in the bast of the occipital bone; passageway for the spinal cord to connect to the brain

Occipital condyles

located on each side of the foramen magnum; articulates with the first vertebrae

External acoustic meatus

canal that leads to the eardrum and the middle ear

Mandibular Fossa

receives the mandibular condyle and forms the temporomandibular joint

Mastoid Process

provides an attachment for certain muscles of the neck

Styloid process

anchors muscles associated with tongue and pharynx

Zygomatic process

joins the temporal process of zygomatic bone to form the zygomatic arch

Carotid canal

located anteriorly to the jugular foramen

Jugular foramen

allows the passage of the large jugular vein

Cribiform Plate

part of the roof of the nasal cavity (associated with the sense of smell)

Perpendicular plate

forms most of the nasal septum

Superior and middle nasal conchae

support mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity

Crista galli

membranes that enclose brain attach to this process

Alveolar process

inferior border of maxillary bone that forms alveolar arch

Maxillary sinuses

largest of the sinuses

Palatine processes of the maxillae

form them anterior portion of the hard palate (roof of the mouth)


forms upper jaw, anterior roof of mouth, floors of orbits, and sides and floor of nasal cavity

Zygomatic bone

form prominences of cheeks, and lateral walls and floors of orbits


form part of medial walls of orbits


form bridge of nose


forms inferior portion of nasal septum

Inferior Nasal Conchae

extend into nasal cavity from its lateral walls


forms lower jaw

Know about the sinuses

frontal sinus, ethmoidal sinuses, sphenoidal sinus, maxillary sinus

Know the fontanels

fontanels- fibrous membranes; soft spot on the skull
frontal suture, frontal bone, anterior fontanel, posterior fontanel, sagittal suture

Know the hyoid bone

located in the neck between the lower jaw and the larynx; does not articulate with any other bones; supports the tongue

What are the different kinds of vertebrae?

Cervical vertebra (7)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (1) (5 fused bones)
Coccyx (1) (4 fused bones) -tail bone

Explain the function of intervertebral discs.

they are pads of flexible fibrocartilage, cushion the vertebrae, absorbs shocks, allows for bending of the spinal column

What are the 2 curvatures of the vertebral column?

1. Cervical curvature- appears when the baby begins to raise its head
2. Lumbar curvature- develops when the baby begins to walk

Know about the ribs.

Ribs- 12 pairs of ribs are attached to the thoracic vertebrae; shaft, head- posterior end; articulates with vertebrae; tubercle- articulates with vertebrae; anterior end of ribs- attached to costal cartilage which goes to sternum

Know about the sternum.

A flat elongated bone; 3 fused bones: manubrium, body, xiphoid process

Sternal punctures

made when taken biopsy of red marrow for a diagnosis of suspected blood diseases

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