How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

295 terms

Social Psychology

Study guide for exam 1 (spring 2012)
Cognitive Dissonance
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.

when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

the more irrevocable the consequences, the greater the dissonance and need to reduce it by overemphasizing the good things about the choice made

• The engine of self-justification
Mental Contortion / Confirmation Bias
Confirmation bias: sees to it that no evidence—the absence of evidence—is evidence for what we believe
Reasoning area of the brain
researcher found reasoning areas of brain virtually shut down when confronted with dissonant information. the emotion circuits of the brain lit up when consonant was restored
Dissonance Theory
That behavior transcends the effects of rewards and punishments and often contradicts them. Explains why people are unreasonable at processing information and continue to be bias after they make an important decision
Self-justification is when people encounters cognitive dissonance, they justify the behavior and deny any negative feedback
How Social Reality is Created and Recreated
Our social reality is NOT FIXED and unchanging. We play a role in our own social reality.

exp. when you Smile, it makes a difference in your interactions with others

The way we perceive reality is different for everyone
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (3 step)
1. Perceiver forms expectations about target which tends to be false, based on inaccurate information

2. Target reacts towards that person in a way consistent with perciever's expectations

3. The target interpret the perceiver's expectation and response, interaction, if continues over time target internalize it
Rosenthal and Jacobson 1968 -IQ study in students
- Teachers were told 20 students be late bloomers and would make IQ gain

(Within 10 point range, students labeled late bloomers gained 10 points in 80% who gained in IQ, 20 point and 30 point gained)

- don't see as much gain in IQ for gifted students, but for students who need the extra help, you see a big difference in IQ gain when they are perceived as gifted.

- Speaks to importance to interaction of students and teachers
Rosenthal's study 4 Factors that affected self-fulfilling prophecy
1. Climate: socioemotional mood (e.g. teachers were warmer toward students identified as gifted)

2. Feedback: affective information (praised more often and less criticism (positive reinforcement)) and cognitive (detailed, quality feedback)

3. Input: teach more towards students and expected more from them

4. Output: encourage responsiveness (greater opportunities to seek clarification)
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy can be aversive
Harris 1992 did troubles kids study
•68 pairs of unacquainted boys, split into 2 groups
•kids labeled hyper treated negatively, leads to self fulfilling prophecy

We all have biases: positively and negatively
-we love to predict our environment
-the problem, reinforcing our beliefs on someone, may have a Negative affect on them
-can result in individuals internalizing labels causing negative self-beliefs and low self-esteem
methods use to overcome biases
• Address the issue
• Replace negative thoughts with positive thoughts
• Be conscious of stereotypes you may have
• Awareness!
• Redefine your definitions (of what intelligence is for school)
• Pay attention to communication in general
Area biases can affect
• Employment
• School
• Relationships
Organizing Principles in Social Psychology: The Self
For a long time, Behaviorism ruled: based on learning, what you learned, didn't take into consideration of internal processes
Gordon Allport in 1943
Famous Social Psychologist
-Argued need to get beyond behaviorism
• What is the self? humans cannot develop sense of self in social isolation
The Self
• The self is YOU, a social being with the ability to engage into an object of focus
(symbolic communication)

The self: symbol using social being who can reflect on his/her own behavior

distinction between the self as an "object" of awareness and the self as "subject" of awareness
Self-Awareness is our Survival Mechanism:

To be part of group, have to engage in self-awareness. Allowed us to monitor our own behavior and the behavior of others and be part of a group.

Self-awareness allowed us to ponder our existence.
-religion is a byproduct of our ability to engage in self awareness
Self concept: the idea of who you are, how you define yourself, how self concept influences our behavior
Self-serving bias
We tend to take credit for positive situations that happens to us and blame negative things away

exp. in book, unemployed workers, if they externalize rejections, more likely to continue the job search, if blames themselves, less motivated to search for a job

Benefits: protects our self-esteem
Drawback: if you don't learn from your mistakes, you wont learn
Dual-Process Theories
Theories of social cognition that describes 2 basic ways of thinking about a social stimuli:
1. Hot Approach/Implicit Cognition
2. Cold Approach/ Explicit Cognition

Hot and Cold approach is held as separate ways of thinking, we can switch between them throughout the day but cannot do both at once
Hot Approach: Implicit cognition/ Dual-Process theory
Judgment/decisions making skills under control of automatically activated evaluations held outside awareness.

exp. when you stereotype, happens at subconscious level, affects how you interpret people..almost based on emotion

benefit: uses few cognitive resources, operates on autopilot

for a long time, belief popularly held
Cold approach: Explicit cognition/Dual-Process theory/
judgment/decision are things we are consciously aware of. Thinking about what you will say or do uses many cognitive resources, mentally draining.
• we don't use as much because uses a lot of mental energy
• Most of the time, we operate on implicit cognition
Organizing Principles in Social Psychology: Culture
Culture shapes social behaviors, our ideas, symbols, preferences, and material objects that we share. Most research argues culture develops in response to the country you come from

Culture shapes peoples' view of reality and of themselves

• Culture measure in textbook pg. 19
• Harmony, group need over individual needs
• Tightly knit social relationships, conformity, similarity. strong family units, especially with extended families
• Submit to the influence of ones group
• Don't search for your identity, its given to you
• 70% of the worlds population

(group level variables, but overall the US we is more individualistic)
• A philosophy of life focusing on what's best for the individual needs over the group
• Care about self and your own goal
• Loosely knit social relationships
• tend to think they are unique, independent
• Autonomous of others influence

• Declaration of independence outcome of individualism
Socioeconomic development
Socioeconomic development: when economy becomes better, collectivist cultures can shift more
towards individualist

• Most Individualistic countries: US, Australia, Great Britain, Canada, Netherlands
• Least individualistic cultures: Guatemala, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, Indonesia, S. Korea, Taiwan
Conducting Research in Social Psychology
1. Select topic and literature review
2. Develop theory & hypothesis: an educated guess built on research you conducted
3. Select research method (IRB), test hypothesis
4. Collect Data
5. Analyze data: support hypothesis
6. Report results: if research is supported, report result and share it
• If you've done good lit. review & have a good theory, you should find support
Research Methods
-Descriptive research: no manipulation, just observing and collecting data. Such as case studies
-Intervention: exposing groups to different variables
Naturalistic Observational
no manipulation, unobtrusive observation. Natural settings, generate ideas to further research where lab experiment isn't possible
• Time consuming, no control, observer effect/bias, cannot make causation
Participant Observation: Participants of the group
• Get closer information
• Festinger study: cognitive dissonance, Doomsday cult. interested in how people would respond when prediction did not occur.

Problem with participation observational research?
• Researcher bias, no control, bystander affect
• low on validity and reliability
• Cannot make causation
Archival Research
Use of already existing records
• Music lyrics, census info, newspaper, cultural beliefs and norms

Gale Bessenoff 2007 study, ways females presented in media. Younger female=more sexual and older females=fully clothe. why young females have lower self esteem
• Playboy study: preferences of female shape, men attracted to bigger women in times of depression, the idea they were healthier. During a prosperous economy, men preferred thinner women.
• Research shows that we see more aggression when its hot outside
Survey Methods
Used to assessed things we cannot see
• Public polling tech

Exp. study done now on how comfortable students were talking about racial issues at UWRF
• Representative sample (smaller amount that accurately reflect population being studied as a whole) to avoid sample bias.

Survey problems are overused.
• Social desirability: socially sensitive topics, responding in manner you think is socially acceptable. Oftentimes difficult to get at, must be self reported in some ways, but people don't want to admit they are prejudice.
Correlational Research
Correlational study's observe or measure to find arelationship between A and B, correlations must be bidirectional & cannot be unidirectional.

physical attractiveness is curvilinear, in a study, less attractive & more attractive may date less than average people
Correlation coefficient
Correlation coefficient -1.00 to +1.00, the closer to 1, the stronger the relationship
• A zero is no relationship, points scattered
• + or - 1.00 in is a perfect relationship
• tend to see correlations of .60 in social science
• + relationship, as one increase other decrease
• - relationship, as one decrease, one increase
Experimental Research:
To establish cause and effect, must conduct an experiment.
1. Create 2 or more groups liked in all ways except condition being varied.
2. Directly varying condition you think effect behavior
3. Record whether condition has effect on behavior
Independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

• set their size, amount, or values
Dependent variable
The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Extraneous variables
Any variable, apart from the independent variable that can effect the dependent variable. Effects the result in an experiment in an unwanted way.

• researcher wants to prevent from affecting outcomes of the experiment
Random assignment
• Used to control for extraneous variables
• to make sure every participant have equal chance being in both control or experimental group
• Through random assignment, groups are assumed as equal on extraneous variables/balanced
• After controlling for extraneous variables by random assignment, we can say there is causation if we see a difference
One study is not that convincing; Majority rules
• Examine various research methods & Statistical techniques to look at overall results & effects
• use multiple methods to test relationship between those specific variables
Emerging technologies in social psychology research
-Virtual environment: used in conformity, may set up mock trial
-Implicit or unconscious measures/
-Brain imaging techniques (fMRI, MRI)
• How love affects the brain
2 Components to the SELF
2 Components to the SELF, there's the "I" and the "me"
Self-awareness is Reflective thinking
• Self-awareness starts at 18 months. (Red dot on forehead, attempt to touch red dot on forehead not mirror because they know they are looking at own reflection)
• About 18 months, rapid development of spindle neurons allows us to have self-awareness
• Self-awareness disengages and turns off during times of difficult task and when we are threatened to allow for quick decision making
• fight or flight active response for survival
• When we engage in self-awareness, that's where our morals are held

• When you disengage in self-awareness, you automatically response
• Most people fluctuate between private and public self-awareness
Private self-awareness
• Private aspects (attitudes, beliefs)
• Tend to Act in line with personal beliefs
• Responsive to current mood
• Can intensify moods positively and negatively
Public Self-Awareness
• Worry more about Physical appearance
• Whether you are being accepted by group
• Conform more often to group

Milgram shock study: to see how far people would shock others if they were told to
• Found people more likely to engage in public self-awareness when authority figure was present
High in Private Self Consciousness
those who are habitually high in private self-consciousness:
• Tend to have complex self-concept
• Downfall, hard on self, higher rates of negative feelings

Should engage in distracting activities: keep self busy to disengage in negative feelings or thoughts
• On average people tend to engage in one or more of the other
High in Public Self Consciousness
• Concern about being judged
• More likely to conform to group
• More focus on Physical appearance in addition to others
• Ability to control and direct our behavior
• Ability to delay/forgo immediate gratification of small rewards to attain larger ones

- for people low on self regulation, high on impulse control, we tend to see same brain area acting out
- Ability to control our behaviors uses a lot of cognitive resources, drains a lot of mental energy
- people who over regulate are OCD

Self-regulation is a self skill, children who are taught to self-regulate tends to be more successful in life. This is a learned trait that at any point in your life, you can increase your ability to self-regulate

• uses the same brain region as self awareness
• To self-regulate, you monitor yourself, plan,
Ways to exercise self regulation
1. Education!
2. Consistent and predictable reward system (for children)
3. Having future oriented models
4. Practice your willpower and say NO to temptation
5. Discuss the consequences of actions
6. Chart progress
7. Piggy bank
self-control its something you can increase by engaging in some of these exercises
Control theory of Self-Regulation
theory contending that, through self-awareness, people compare their behavior to a standard, and if there is a discrepancy, they work to reduce it

• Such as studying for an exam or practicing a sport
• We engage in this cycle all the time
Self Discrepancies
Self Discrepancies: is when self-regulation does not meet our standards. Discrepancy between our actual self and our ideal self causing: anxiety, guilt

• If it doesn't line up, we may feel dejection-related emotions; Disappointment, frustration, depression
• May say things like "I wish I was more physically attractive."

If you can set your own standards, you tend to be less depress
Self Control is Depleting

• We have a limited amount of self control making it difficult to self regulate on a 2nd unrelated task

Depleting resources (where we tend to self regulate)
• Watching scary movie
• Job interviews
• Studying for exams, Aging

Our brain is fueled by glucose/sugar. If individuals drink something with glucose, this may temporary increase the brains ability to self-regulate, giving it additional fuel to help you self-regulate.
The self (as a knowledge structure)
The self as a knowledge structure
• Self-schema
• Can be complex or simple
• Importance qualities, aschematic (things that don't matter to you)
• Impacting events: such as a divorce, cancer, were discriminated against, poor
• Stands out: things that you've been rewarded for, opposites of stereotype,
• Influence what we remember, pay attention to, behaviors
o Such as if you are a Feminist would pay attention to equality and abortion rights
o beauty, if ideal self doesn't match with actual self, would result in depression, eating disorders, and so on
Individual with a bicultural background who views themselves and the world through both individualist and collectivist lenses by cultural frame switching
Cultural frame switching
Cultural frame switching: move between 2 cultural belief systems in response to situational cues

• Ralston et al. (1995) Hong Kong bilingual-Chinese manager's values questionnaire study. Found that if presented in English, manager's sorted items based on individualistic traits, but if presented in native language, more likely to indicate collectivist value.

Learn a new language and get a new soul (Czech proverb)
Cultural Beliefs and Gender
• Women tend to have more relational self-concept. Close relationships. Relational descriptors: caring, nurturing. Why females are better at remembering relation type dates.

• Men tend to have more Independent self concept, Larger group, Relationships not as close, more competitive, protective
Social identities
Shared set of values, beliefs, and goals
Strategic self-presentation
How we present the self to others is stressful, we Self-regulate and risk losing control of our performance because it depletes our resource

Self regulation is like a muscle, we can exercise it, some people can get really good at it.
-If you constantly engage in self-regulation, you can become good at it & it wont elevate blood pressure and heart
Strategic Self-Presentation strategies
6 strategic self-presentation strategies:
1. Ingratiation
2. Modesty
3. Self-promotion
4. Exemplification
5. Intimidation
6. Supplication
7. Self-handicapping
Intimidation: arouse fear and gain power by convincing others they are powerful

-Used to make people fear you and do what you want, people who use this would be drill sergeants, Bullies, and even parents
Supplication: when individuals advertises weakness or dependence to others

-exp. Homeless individuals and students who ask help
o seen as Poor functioning
o Intent to make people feel sorry for you
o Makes people judge them worse, leads to decrease self-esteem
Self-handicapping (2 types)
Self-handicapping: when an individual creates obstacles to his/her own performance. Used when skills central to our self-concept is threatened. to protect self-esteem.

-Can be Helpful, can protect & enhance self-esteem, reduce stress, anxiety & can actually improve performance

2 types of self-handicapping: Self-reported & behavioral. Behavioral handicapping is worse, you actually engage in behavior to self-handicap such as partying night before exam
Self-monitoring: the tendency to use cues from other peoples self-presentations to control our own self-presentations (to be accepted)

Benefit: you are adaptable & flexible
Drawback: if high in self monitor, seen as fake & don't have a complex self
High Self Monitor individuals
• Are Skilled impression managers
• Monitor and mimic how others behave
• Experience less psychological arousal because utilize resources that builds up (like a muscle)
• Less consistent across situations
• Have less intimate relationships
• Judge people more on superficial values, high reliance on being physically attractive
• Tend to brown-nose
• Might be good at sales, negotiations
Self-esteem: how you evaluate your self concept.

-we tend to think that we are good people
-Developed as an internal meter to see if we are accepted as part of a group
-If things effect our self-esteem, we would engage in self-regulation: Internal meter of group inclusion
Low Self-Esteem
• Most people don't have negative self-views of themselves

Individuals with truly low self-esteem are:
• Unhappy & pessimistic
• Needful of social acceptance
• Encounter financial & academic problems
• Less successful careers
• Less physically healthy
• Negative things effects them for a longer period of time

in low self-esteem individuals, it takes more self-regulatory resources to boost up positive feeling to increase self esteem
Unstable self-esteem
Unstable self-esteem: when people act as if they are accepting of themselves, but deep down, they don't believe it. Surface level self-esteem.

• Hidden cost of trying to preserve it—aggression
• Almost as if need to consistently reassure themselves that they are good. If challenged, become defensive or aggressive.

Best way to test someone's self esteem is to make fun of him or her.
Self reflection
when we self-reflect, we bask in glory of others, they become part of our self concepts, such as your significant other or children to raise our self esteem.
Social comparison
Social comparison is when we compare ourselves to those we know: depending on the bond with individual & relevance of task if it's important to our self-concept. Can lower our self-esteem if they outperform us at something that is important to us.
Attitude: some sort of positive or negative evaluation
• Specialized terms for certain classes, self-esteem is an attitude about yourself

-prejudice is negative attitude you have towards a group

Attitudes can be implicit and explicit: Involves 3 components
1. Emotional: feelings of uneasiness, negative affect, etc. affective response towards something, any feeling
2. Cognitive: marijuana is a gateway drug, more explicit, how do you feel, evaluate something
3. Behavioral: I will not smoke marijuana

Argument against Attitudes and Persuasion model is that you may not need all 3 of these. That attitude, doesn't always influence your behavior.
Implicit Attitudes
Implicit attitudes (automatic thinking), oftentimes we have implicit attitudes towards others
Explicit/ Dual Attitude
Explicit or dual, your cognitive thinking, can have attitudes that are conflicting, such as being prejudice, but in effortful thinking you may say no, but implicitly you may be
Attitude Development
• Theodor Newcomb 1930, Bennington College study on how attitudes developed

• Reference groups: a lot of groups can enter into your self concept, who you are, they tend to influence our behaviors, how we judge the world, and ourselves. Can be high levels such as religion, state, family and friends
Theodor Newcomb 1930, Bennington College study
Theodor Newcomb 1930, Bennington College study (very small and liberal college)

Found a social & political conservatism shift during time at college for students who:

o Contact with professors
o Shaped students life course
o Most students were from conservative families, by time most graduated, became liberal
o Biggest predictor for shift in attitude was contact with professors
Functional approach to Attitude
Functional Approach: we develop attitudes to satisfy different psychological needs; Need for acceptance from others
o Goes back to self-monitoring to get people to like you
Cognitive Approach to Attitude
Cognitive Approach; making sense of our world.

Brain filled with different file folders for info, to be easily retrieved
-we need to understand something about people we don't know so that we can interact with them
-A lot of people tend to have negative attitude
Reaction Formation/ Psychoanalytic (Freud)
Defense mechanisms to help protect self esteem.

Reaction formation: if something causes you anxiety, you act out the opposite of how you truly feel

Exp. if a man is a closet homosexual, this causes extreme anxiety, what we see, according to theory is that the person will act the opposite of of urges/ s an extremely negative attitude against homosexuals in order to counter the feeling
Mere Exposure & evolution
The more we are exposed to things, the more we like them. Reason is we are naturally nervous about things causing us harm, so if see someone once who didn't harm us, if we keep seeing them, we naturally start to have a positive affect towards them
Behaviorist: Subject to learning processes: Classical conditioning processes.
-How implicit attitudes towards individuals is developed through classical conditioning
Neutral = Muslims
UCS → dirty, BAD,: UCR: Negative feelings
CS→ Muslims; CR → Negative feelings towards Muslims

The media is the biggest source of negative attitudes
Operant conditioning
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response

Observational learning: models, what you observe from others are negatively or positively reinforced for.
Attitudes and behavior/ LaPiere study 1934
Attitude should predict behavior:

• LaPiere study 1934: wrote letters to restaurants and asked if they would serve Chinese individuals, many said NO. He later showed up at same places with a Chinese person and found that they were served. Got people interested in the disconnect found between peoples attitude and their behavior.

• Social norms, social desirability,
Theory of Planned Behavior
Attitudes predict intention, but intention is also influenced by subjective norms, and perceived control of situation

Exp. in I/O, relationship between employee satisfaction and turnover rates, which isn't always the case

• things that can influence subjective norm is the cultural norm/ or environment

Exp. If satisfied with job, norm would be to show up on time? Things such as kids, car trouble are external factors you have no control over
Persuasion (2 channels)
• Attempt to directly change attitudes

2 channels by which to alter attitudes:

1. Central route: looking at argument itself, cognitive evaluation. Fact based.
-Exp. When you are evaluating a college, influence on explicit level, weight out pros and cons

2. Perpetual route: sounds smart, looks at environment surround argument, takes into context.
-Exp. you don't have good product, may try to influence by presenting something appealing instead of facts, related to implicit, influencing someone outside of their awareness
Central Route
• fact based
• evaluate on a conscious level
• content
• structure
• data
• political debates, car ads with safety info, computer ads, all based on data, structure of argument and context itself
Central Route in Persuasion / Content, style, and structure
Content, style, and structure

• Make strong logical arguments, fact based
• Ones sided vs. 2 sided
• Break complex arguments down, if info too complex, people will be turned off
• Personal relevance, want to grab their attention,
• Encourage active participation, when people are thinking about your argument, don't want them to leave the room having questions about it, want them to ask so that you can answer

When using central route in persuasions, will see that:
• Attitudes are more accessible because you've thought about them over and over
• They are persistent and stable, your changing their attitudes, once attitude change, more persistent
• Resistant
• Predict behavior: stronger relationships between attitudes developed this way than behavior
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
Looks more at context, influence feelings, heart, emotion (appeals to emotion)

• Subtle cues and context
• Occurs automatically
• Used when you don't have a lot of data or not the best product
• Less likely to lead to large attitude change

If we WANT to INFLUENCE peoples behavior, want to use "central route"
Source and message characteristics in peripheral route
• Credibility
• Similarity-preferences (used quite often), we trust ourselves, so we trust people similar to us, especially when it comes to preferences for things

• Personal attractiveness; putting attractive people in ads, related to classical conditioning, product is neutral but we have positive affective naturally towards attractive people, so our positive response to attractive person rubbed off on product

• Talking fast, vivid images, often used in peripheral route, makes it more difficult to focus on argument, makes you less likely to contradict and logically process info

techniques used such as:
• Vivid images
• Environment: can influence people, get to relax
• Relate to person; find something you have in common with person, makes you connected to them in some way. Because we like ourselves, we have greater positive affect towards others similar towards us

• If you can get someone to say yes to you once or do something for you, they are more likely to repeat that a second time, even it you ask them a stupid question
How to know which persuasive route to take.
Think about audience itself, who are you trying to persuade

• Characteristics of audience when deciding what route to take. These are often not mutually exclusive, you may see both central and peripheral routes used in ads

need to consider the:
-Motivation, ability (educational level, who's your audience), time & interest, need for cognition, Product itself
Fear; scare tactics and anxiety provoking

• Need to be able to cut through the chatter, attention, tough behavioral changes

• Different countries have different levels of tolerance, some countries allow more extreme use of fear in advertising than the US

exp. Doctors sent letters to their patients who smoked, such as quit now and live longer, continue and die sooner
Ethical issues when using Fear tactics
Is it right for advertisers to bring about anxiety to people? Feelings of guilt in people? Should they be allowed to make people feel crappy, sad? Should there be some guideline?

With commercials you don't really have a choice to watch it, it comes on fast.

Fear can create: anxiety and stress, Victim blaming—AIDS, Low Social Economic Status→ lacks means to change so what's the point, Increasing intensity with desensitization

For FEAR to be effective, want to present fear but also information for people so that they know what they can do to prevent it or avoid it
Rationalization and Attitudes/ Festinger (Dooms Day cult study)
Humans are motivates to maintain consistency between beliefs, attitudes and behaviors.

• Infiltrated Dooms Day Cult

-Festinger was Interested in what would happen on 12/21 at midnight when the world didn't blow up

-Found that there were 2 types of members, extreme and not so extreme
-At midnight, found that those who were extreme in their belief were even more committed when the world didn't end.
-They self-justified that because of their belief, the world didn't explode. they were actually out trying to recruit people to join their cults
Cognitive Dissonance
we Experience mental anxiety when there is a mismatch between our attitudes and behaviors. we can't change the behavior, but can change our attitude.
Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger)
People motivated to maintain consistency in their thoughts, feelings, and actions. When inconsistencies/conflict exist between our thoughts, feelings, and action it can lead to a strong tension and discomfort (mental anxiety/cognitive dissonance). To reduce the tension or dissonance we change our original attitude to fit our behavior

No matter what we do, we tend to rationalize or actions (self-justification)

asserts that rationalization shapes attitudes
Festinger's 1959 Boring Task Study
study found that participants who, for $1,lied to others that the task was very enjoyable and fun came to believe that it was enjoyable to a far greater degree than those who lied for $20. The $1 liars also expressed greater enthusiasm for the task than a control group who were not asked to lie.
-consistent with cognitive dissonance theory

-finding surprised a lot of attitude researchers contradicted reinforcement theories, which predicted that participants who were paid more would exhibit greater attitude changes

Festinger and Carlsmith 1959
- predicted participants given insufficient monetary justification for lying (the $1 liars) experienced greater cognitive dissonance, thus expressing more liking for the adult task than those who receive sufficient monetary justification (the $20 liars)
6 Ways to reduce cognitive dissonance
6 common strategies:

1. changing attitudes: people can simply change their attitudes to make them consistent with discrepant attitudes or prior behaviors

2. Adding cognitions: if 2 discrepant thoughts cause dissonance, people can add more confident thoughts. Such as getting drunk relaxe me, makes me happy, good for my mental health.

3. Altering the importance of the discrepancy: Such as, it's more important to stay relaxed and fit and with my friends than to worry about the health effects of alcohol

4. reducing perceived choice: people can convince themselves that they are not freely choosing to engage in the discrepant behavior. Such as, I have no choice but to drink. so much stress in my life, getting drunk is only way to blow off steam.

5. making self affirmations: people can remind himself of cherished aspects of their self-concept that are unrelated to the current dissonance, thus restoring their feelings of overall integrity. Suggest saying I have so many other positive qualities and accomplishments in other areas it's okay if I've fallen short in this one small area.

6. changing behavior: people can change their behavior so it no longer conflicts with their attitude. Suggest I'm going to stop getting drunk again
Cognitive dissonance and Behaviorism
cognitive dissonance contradicts behaviorisms' belief that we only do things for rewards and more likely to continue a behavior if we are rewarded

-Fraternities: when hard to get into, once thru process, will like fraternity more than one easy to get into. Belief that it must be great and that's why you made yourself go through it
-Grad school
-The psychology of sex experiment

Elliot: if people go through a great deal of pain, discomfort or embarrassment to get something, that will be happier with that something than if it came easily to them
once we make a decision about something
- If we are faced with new information that contradicts our belief (dissonance) we explain it away

- If info is consistent with our beliefs, we will think its correct and useful

Exp. Iraq war and WMD
-Democrats said republicans lied (easy to reduce cognitive dissonance),
-for republicans still believed that weapons were there but that it was moved or changed rational for the war

• researchers have found that our Reasoning abilities in the brain shuts down when we are faced with dissonance/conflicting information

• The absence of evidence becomes evidence

In cognitive dissonance, you are changing your attitude to make it fit your believes to relief mental anguish
Jenny McCarthy
o Believed child got autism from shots
o goes out and preaches that shots are causing autism
o Person and public commitment to her belief
o Contradictory evidence, yet she justifies her belief that it's the medical community wanting $
o She has social support
o "I know children regress after vaccination because it happened to my own son""
o In the U.S., more cases of measles reported in 2008 than any other year since 1997
Rationalization trap
Rationalization trap is potential for dissonance reduction to produce a succession of self-justifications that can ultimately results in chain of unintelligent or immoral actions.
The Power of Irrevocablility
The Power of Irrevocability

o People continue to be biased after making important decisions! This Bolster our decisions-especially when it can't be unmade

o Buying a Mercedes, find self justifications for our actions
o Racetrack example: betters weren't sure before bet, but sure of horse winning after bet
o Coupons

If you want help making a decisions, never ask someone who has just done what you want to do.
how can you get someone to like you
by asking them to do something for you even if it's something insignificant.

because we like ourselves and think positive of our selves, if we do something for others, we rationalize that they must be good and that's why we helped them. therefore, we are more likely to help them again in the future.
Sudan Tribes
...removed front tooth
social psychology
the discipline that uses scientific methods in an attempt to understand and explain how the thought, feeling, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, and imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport)

social psychology exists as a discipline in both psychology and sociology, with the larger of the 2 being the psychological branch

both studies social behavior, but from different perspectives.
Kurt Lewin
a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany, instrumental in establishing social psychology as a respected field of scientific inquiry

instrumental in founding the Society for the psychological study of social issues ( SPSSI) & served as its 1st president in 1941

his motto was, no research without action, and no action without research
contemporary social psychologist
draws on insights of sociology, anthropology, biology and neurology, political science, and the economics to gain a better understanding of how the individual fits into the larger social system.
-An integrative science.
Psychological social psychology
focus on individuals and how they respond to social stimuli.

Even when psychological social psychologist study group dynamics, they generally emphasize the process that occur at the individual level

definition of social psychology in the book reflects this psychological perspective
sociological social psychology
downplays the importance of individual differences and the effects of in media social stimuli on behavior

instead, it focuses on larger group or societal variables, such as People's socioeconomic status, social roles, and cultural norms
social psychology is more than common sense
our social world beliefs are best characterized as being embedded within a naïve psychology. Instead of being based on careful scientific analysis, they are often develop from everyday experiences and uncritical acceptance of other people's views and opinions.

Though commonsense psychological believes often results in good decision-making, they can also produce distorted and contradictory judgments

social psychology has no grand theory that explains all aspects of social behavior, there are some important and organizing principles and perspectives
the self / shaped by-and shapes-the social environment
for most of the past century, behaviorist perspective in psychology focus on studying only observable actions, which prevented the concept of the self from being a focus of research in social psychology. most social psychologists explained people's behavior simply by examining social cues in the situation, without considering how each person's life experiences and self-evaluations might shape the response

it wasn't until the early 1970s that an increase in number of social psychologist, led by empirical studies and growing interest in human cognition focused on the self

today, in contemporary social psychology, the self this self related constructs are important and explanatory tools of the discipline
the Self
the self is both a simple and complex concept. It's not a mental construct located in your head-it's you, a social being with the ability to engage in symbolic communication and self awareness.

the reason the cognitive processes of symbol usage and self awareness are important in definition is because both are essential for us to mutually engage in planed, coordinated activities in which we can regulate our behavior and anticipate the actions of others

this ability to analyze ourselves, our surroundings, and possible future realities allows us to actively create and re-create ourselves and our social world
self awareness and symbol usage
self awareness, symbol usage-thus, the self -- may have evolved in our ancestors as a means to better deal with an increasingly complex social environment

self-awareness, not only provided our ancestors with knowledge about their own behaviors, but they could also use this inner experience to anticipate how rivals might behave in future such as war and social bargaining, giving them an advantage in these activities but they could also use this symbolic communication to discuss things not physically present, such as a herd of antelope

these 2 defining features of the self became the means by which our ancestors developed an adaptive advantage in their environments for survival and reproducing

selfhood also allow our ancestors to ponder their existence. such as the elaborate burial sites created during the upper Paleolithic period 40,000 years ago-- provides evidence that the modern human mind and the self were emerging

social psychologist M. Brewster Smith Smith contend that this new search for ultimate meaning among others led to the development of myths, ritual, and religion which affirmed to each social group its value as the people
self serving bias
the most agreed-upon explanation for self-serving bias is that it allows us to

-used to enhance and protect our self worth

Although self-serving biases provide a less than accurate view of ourselves, it may be functionally efficient because it often boost our self-confidence
social psychology's emphasis on the self represents an affirmation of Kurt Lewin's belief that both person and situation no factors influence social behavior. This perspective was later called interactionism

interactionism combines personality psychology which stresses differences among people with traditional psychology which stresses differences among situations
social thinking automatic or deliberate?
There has been a running debate concerning the nature of human behavior. One perspective that people are move to act due to their needs, desires, and emotional affect. This is described as the hot approach which argues that cool, calculated planning of behavior is secondary to heated, impulsive action that fulfills desires

the alternative viewpoint that people's actions are principally influenced by the rational analysis of choices facing them in particular situations. The code approach asserts how people think will ultimately determine what they want and how they feel

in the 50s and 60s, the hot perspective was most influential. By the 80s, the cold perspective dominated the thinking within social psychology. One reason for this shift was the computer age resulting in people's everyday lives being saturated with terminology and thinking of this new technoscience

reflecting this new reality, many social psychologist borrows concepts from cognitive psychology and developed theories of social cognition that provided numerous insights into how we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about our social world. Like a computer, these theories often described people methodology, processing information and fix sequence, or serially, working on only one stream of data at a time

despite this, the computer model is less helpful in explaining other ways of thinking because the human brain is more complex and performs many mental operations simultaneously in parallel

in response to criticism, cognitively oriented social psychologist has sought to establish a more balanced view of human nature by blending the traditional hot and cold perspectives into what some have termed the warm look
dual process theories of social cognition
that social thinking and behavior is determined by 2 different ways of understanding and responding to social stimuli

one mode of information processing-is based on effortful, reflective thinking which no action is taken until its potential consequences are properly weighed and evaluated, the cold approach

the alternative mode-relate to the hot perspective legacy based on minimal and cognitive effort in which behavior is often impulsively/automatically activated by emotions, habits, or biological drive

the essential assumption to keep in mind regarding dual process theories is that many aspects of human behavior results from automatic process this may occur spontaneously and outside our awareness
culture shapes social behavior

people view of the world through cultural lenses

by culture, we mean the total lifestyle of people, including all the ideas, symbols, preferences, and material objects that they share

this cultural experience shapes people's view of reality and of themselves, status, significantly influences their social behavior
generation next or Y
young adults born between 1981 and 1988

the label is meant to distinguish them from the older generation X adults born between 1966 in 1980

in a national survey conducted by the pew research Center, more than two thirds of generation next saw their generation as unique and distinct. reflects a desire for individual expression

though more socially tolerant than past generations, generation next believes that their generation is more interested in focusing on themselves then helping others
preference for a loosely knit social framework in which society individuals are supposed to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. Belief system asserts that society is a collection of unique individuals who pursue their own goals and interests and strives to be relatively free from the influence of others

individualism can be traced back to the early Greeks and Romans writings and ideas and medieval Anglo-Saxon England

didn't make a significant appearance on the world stage until the 16th century when people became more geographically mobile and regularly interacted with others from radically different cultures

during the late 1800s and early 1900s the age of industrialization and urbanization in Western societies, social roles became increasingly complex and compartmentalize

today it's common practice to find or create one's own identity rather than be given an identity by one's group.

Self-discipline, self-sufficiency, personal accountability and autonomy are highly valued characteristics in a person in an individualistic society
preference for a tightly knit social framework in which individuals can expect relatives or other members of their social group to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.

political sciences Ronald Inglehart and social psychologist Daphnia Pyserman contend that collectivism is the older of the 2 philosophies because it focuses on the type of thinking and behavior that affords the most protection for people who live in threatening environments or survival needs are extremely salient

in contrast, individualism is a more recent philosophy of life because it developed among people who inhabit relatively safe environments where their survival is not dependent on maintaining strong group ties

social scientists commonly think of these differing ideologies as reflecting 2 similarly universal and common human needs: the need for autonomy and the need for communion

individualism and collectivism are not permanently unchanging characteristics of a
given society. Individualism is closely linked with social economic development. When collectivist cultures become industrialized and experience economic development, they often experience a shift toward some of the cultural beliefs associated with individualism and away from some of the cultural beliefs associated with collectivism
evolutionary psychology
the evolutionary perspective is partly based on the writings of Charles Darwin who theorize that genetic changes the population of the species occur over many generations due to the interaction of environmental and biological variables
are the biochemical units of inheritance for all living organisms, and the human species has about 30,000 different genes
natural selection
as the environment changes, members within the species possessing traits better suited to the new condition will flourish a process called natural selection

Reproduction is central to the natural selection process, the essence of natural selection is that the characteristics of some individuals allow them to produce more offspring than others
refers to the gradual genetic changes that occur in the species over generations

2 important points to keep in mind when considering the process of evolution:

1. individual organisms don't evolve, populations evolve
2. evolution does not necessarily result in species being transformed into more complex forms of life. Instead, the key feature of evolutionary process has to do with the degree to which it organisms inborn genetic traits help it adapt to its current environment

scientist points out when the species changes environments, or when its environmental changes an unavoidable period of time exists in which its biological makeup not in tune with its surrounding
social neuroscience
studies the relationship between the neuro processes of the brain and social processes

into sizes of the brain influences social interaction, but also of how social interaction can influence the brain

example. using machines such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal parts of the brain
cerebral cortex
the wrinkled looking outer layer of brain tissue that coordinates and integrates all other brain areas into a fully functioning unit

90% of our cerebral cortex is of relatively recent evolution the frontal lobe is its largest region
frontal lobe
the frontal lobe is involved in the coordination of movement and higher mental processes, such as planning, social skills, and abstract thinking

recent brain imaging studies indicate that a region of the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex called the anterior cingulate cortex is especially active when people are self aware
anterior cingulate cortex
a region inside the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex of the brain

contains a special type of brain cells or neuron's called spindle neuron, which are much larger than other neutrons in the brain
spindle neurons
spindle neurons collect waves and neural signals from one region of the brain and send them to other regions

it appears the anterior cingulate cortex with its spindle neurons act as an executive attention system that facilitates self awareness

humans are one of only a few species who possess spindle neuron

research indicate when people are trying to exert self control over their own thinking and behavior (self-regulate), the anterior cingulate cortex is also actively working in concert with areas in the prefrontal lobe regions ( the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the oritofrontal cortex)
scientific method
the scientific method consists of a set of procedures used to gather, analyze, and interpret information in a way that reduces error and leads to dependable generalizations
basic research
social psychologist conduct basic and applied research

basic research is simply to increase knowledge about social behavior, knowledge for knowledge sake

no attempt is made to solve a specific social psychological problem
applied research
in contrast to basic research, applied research is designed to increase the understanding of and solutions to real-world problems by using current social psychological knowledge
social psychology: to research goals acquiring and applying knowledge
one important ethical questions surrounding applied research is whether there should be any limits on the use of social psychological knowledge

basic research has taught us a great deal about the conditions under which people become suspect about to persuasion and influence.

considerable debate about the proper role that social psychologist should play in applying their knowledge to the world.

1 point of view is that the discoveries of any science should be used for whatever purpose interested parties consider important
-that scientist should be neutral truth seekers & not be concerned about how their discoveries are utilized. Followers of this value free perspective believe that social psychologists should use the facts of their science to influence social policy, decisions undermine scientific basis of the discipline

a 2nd point of view, 1st proposed by Kurt Lewin in the 40s is that social science and social action should not be separated. Contemporary followers of this value ladder and perspective believes that merely studying society and its problems without a commitment to changing society for the better is irresponsible.

a commonly accepted belief within the philosophy of science today is no science is untouched by values and the politics of the culture in which it is practiced
6 steps in the process of social psychological research
step 1: Select a topic and review past research must be knowledgeable about pass research findings in their areas of interest and keep up to date on recently published studies. literature review

step 2: develop a theory, generate hypothesis, and select a scientific method once research literature has been digested. theory must be developed that can be empirically tested using hypothesis that logically flow from the ferry. Scientific method must be used to allow the hypothesis to be tested in a way that minimizes errors and leads to dependable generalization

step 3: obtain approval to conduct the study. Prior to conducting research all proposed studies must be submitted for approval to institutional review boards IRB's

step 4: collect the data. Social psychologists used both qualitative and quantitative data. The 3 basic techniques of data collections are self-reports, direct observations, and archival information

step 5: analyze data and reevaluate the theory. Can be analyzed using either descriptive or inferential statistics, with the latter mathematical analysis being more valuable because it allows researchers to generalize their findings to the population of interest. If results did not support the studies hypothesis, that theory from which the hypothesis for derived needs to be reconsidered and perhaps revised.

Step 6: report the results. Not every study will be published and make its way into a social psychological literature. In those cases, scientific journal without publish a submitted article is there are problems with the hypothesis or methods, or falls in the data analysis. In addition articles are often rejected for publication because reviewers decide the research is a very important. Because of this less than 10% of the submitted research articles get published
an educated guess or predictions about the nature of things based upon the theory, it's a logical implication of the theory
in organized system of ideas that seeks to explain why 2 or more events are related
what makes a good theory
predictive accuracy: can it reliably predict behavior?

Internal coherence: are there any logical inconsistencies between any of theoretical ideas?

Economy: does it only contained what is necessary to explain the phenomenon in question?

Fertility: does it generate research and can be used to explain a wide variety of social behavior
factors in a study that can be measured and that are capable of changing
operational definition
a very clear description of how a variable in a study has been measured
a methodological technique in which the researcher misinformed participants about the true nature of what they are experiencing in a study

the reason for using deception is to increase the likelihood the response of participants are as close as possible to the response of people in real-world setting

2 main forms of deception and research:

1. Not fully disclosing the true nature of the study until it is over
2. exposing participants to a trained member of the research team, called a Confederate

deceptions should be used cautiously by researchers because it could lead to a loss of trust in social scientist by those participating if they believe the researcher had abuse them in the course of the investigation
a member of the research team who follows a script designed to create a specific impression on participants

by their nature, Confederates misinform participants about the true nature of what they are experiencing
institutional review boards IRB's
because of previous studies such as the Milgram shock study

in 1974 the US government develop regulations requiring all institutions seeking federal funding to establish institutional review boards IRB's for research involving human participants. There are comparable IRB's for studies using nonhuman subjects to. These reviewing bodies compose a scientist, medical professionals, clergy, and other community members, make sure that the welfare of human participants is protected.

These guidelines focus on risk/benefit ratio, which weighs the potential risk to those participating in a study against the benefits that the study may have for advancing knowledge about humanity

in assessing proposed studies, priority is always given to the welfare of the participants over any potential benefits for research
informed consent
procedure by which people freely choose to participate in the study only after they are told about the activities they will perform
a procedure which the conclusion of a research session in which participants are given full information about the nature and hypothesis of the study
a group of people who were selected to participate in a research study

regarding the data collected from the sample of participants there are 2 broad categories: qualitative and quantitative
all the members of an identifiable group from which a sample is drawn
qualitative data
qualitative data exist in a non-numeric form, such as a scientist narrative report of conversation between 2 people
quantitative data
quantitative data is numerical

scientist collecting this type of data, when studying the same 2 people conversing, might rate each person's level of physical attractiveness with a numerical scale in which 1 indicates very unattractive and 5 indicates very attractive.

researchers often collect both qualitative and quantitative data in the same study
3 basic techniques of data collection
1. self-report
2. direct observations
3. archival information

these 3 ways of collecting information are not always mutually exclusive. Example, the personal memoirs of historical figures represent both self-reports and archived data
self-report data collecting
collecting data using self-reports the researchers to measure important subjective states, such as people's perceptions, emotions, or attitudes

the self/social connection exercise in book provides an example of the commonly used self-report scale and social psychology so just how is self-esteem measured

the disadvantage of self-report data, is that it relies on people accurately describing these internal states-something they are not always willing or able to do
direct observation data collecting
researchers prefer to directly observe people's behavior, recording its quantity and direction of change over time

this technique is widely employed in observational and experimental studies
archival information data collecting
researchers sometimes examine existing documents, or archives, to gather information.

These the cumulative records come from a wide variety of sources and can provide researchers with a great deal of valuable information
2 basic kinds of statistics
1. descriptive
2. inferential
descriptive statistics
descriptive statistics merely summarize and describe the behavior or characteristics of a particular sample of participants in a study
inferential statistics
inferential statistics move beyond mere description to make generalizations about the larger population from which the sample was drawn

inferential statistics are used to estimate the likelihood that a difference found in the people study would also be found if everyone in the population participated

because one of the main objectives of social psychological research is to generalize research findings to the population of interest, inferential statistics are the more valued type of statistic in the discipline
statistically significant
social psychologists generally accept a difference as statistically significant if the likelihood of it having occurred by mere chance is less than 1 in 20; a probability of less than 5%
the cyclical nature of the theory-hypothesis relationship
data collected from study provides the evidence to support or disconfirm the hypothesis

if the hypothesis is supported, the validity of the theory is also supported, generating new hypothesis to test in future research

if hypothesis is not supported, validity of the theory is questioned, prompting researchers to revise the theory to reflect the insights gained from their investigation. This revised theory is then used to develop new hypothesis that are then tested in another round of research.
Observational research
observational research is a scientific method involving systematic qualitative and/or quantitative descriptions of behavior

description is the goal of observational research

the scientific observer would not try to manipulate the behavior under study but with simply recorded.

3 common types of observational methods are employed by social psychologist:

1. naturalistic observation
2. participant observation
3. archival research
naturalistic observation
type of descriptive method that investigates behavior in its natural environment

this observation and recording of behavior sometimes occur over a prolonged period

example settings could take place at sporting events in neighborhood shopping malls

observer usually remain as unobtrusive as possible
so that their presence does not influence the behavior under study

in some cases, researchers are not present at all. Hidden video cameras record the events

researchers often use this technique during the initial stages of a project to generate ideas and to gather descriptive data
participant observation
participant observation is another type of observational methods

participant observation is a descriptive scientific method wore a group is studied from within by a researcher who records behavior as it occurs in its usual natural environment

such as Leon Festinger's study of the Chicago-based doomsday cults 1950s. from this study he came up one of the 1st test of cognitive dissonance theory

for advantages of both naturalistic and participant observation research

1. allows the opportunity to watch behavior in its wholeness providing full context in which to understand
2. provides the opportunity to record rare events that may never occur in a controlled laboratory environment
3. allows researcher the opportunity to systematically record events that were previously seen only by nonscientists
4. allows researchers to observe events that would be too risky, dangerous, or unethical to create in a lab
interobserver reliability
if trained observers, working independently, exhibit a high level of agreement and identifying the behaviors you have high inter-observer reliability
drawbacks to observational studies
despite numerous benefits too observational studies, some problems bear mentioning (4 things)

1. due to the absence of control, conclusions on observational research must be drawn cautiously
-operational research does not manipulate events to determine their effects on outcomes, Researchers must be careful concluding how events are related to one another (cannot make causation)

2. observer bias, occurs when scientists preconceived ideas about what they are studying affect the nature of their observations
- biasing can be minimized if behaviors observed are carefully defined and more than one observer is trained in identifying them
- if trained observers, working independently, exhibit a high level of agreement and identifying the behaviors, you have high interobserver reliability

3. a 3rd potential problem is that your presence can significantly alter the behavior of those being studied the best taint the data
- the danger of researchers altering participants behavior due to their presence is especially troublesome in participant observation research, because the researchers are often actively involved in the observed event

4. finally, one last problem posed by observational methods is that more than any other scientific method, they pose the most ethical problems involving invasion of others privacy
archival research
the 3rd observational method is archival research, which examines the already existing records of an individual, group, or culture

example of archival data what include diaries, music lyrics, television programs, etc

archival research is often employed as one component in a larger research effort that includes other scientific methods

social sciences regularly use archival methods to examine cultural beliefs and norms, such as beauty standards

archival research can provide us with valuable information about a culture
content analysis
a technique in which 2 or more people called judges, working independently, counts images, words, sentences, ideas, or whatever other category of information is of interest

it's important to clearly define the research variables before beginning a content analysis

it's also important that judges are carefully trained so that they consistently follow the same guidelines when coding information

if each category of information is clearly defined and if all judges are adequately trained, we have to interjudge reliability
interjudge reliability
means the same thing as interobserver reliability-should be sufficiently high to ensure that the observations are not the results of observer bias
correlational research
research design to examine the nature of the relationship between 2 or more naturally occurring variables

when changes in one variable relate to changes in another variable, we say they correlate
surveys are structure sets of questions or statements given to a group of people to measure their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavioral tendencies
4 major survey techniques
face-to-face surveys, written surveys, phone surveys, and computer surveys

face-to-face format provides highly detailed information and allows researchers the best opportunity to clarify any unclear questions. However, it's costly and there is always the possibility that people's response might be influenced by the interviewer's presence

written, phone, and computer surveys eliminate such interviewer bias and are much less expensive

obtaining information using surveys is generally relatively easy, the main disadvantage in all 3 techniques is that they rely on self-report data

self-report suffers from respondents faulty memories, wishful thinking, an outright deception

an important consideration constructing surveys involves how questions are asked. Survey questions usually are either open ended or closed ended
- each question format has advantages and disadvantages

To capitalize on the strengths of both types of questions, survey researchers sometimes provide a set response alternatives and then invite participants to write down response of their own choosing if they wish

overall, as with all research methods, the results of survey research have to be interpreted with its strengths and weaknesses in mind, increased confidence in its conclusion will occur when other methods provide converging results
open ended survey question
an open ended survey question requires a response from us have more than just a yes or no

open ended questions may provide information that might be missed with close ended questions. Open ended responses require coding by carefully trained judges and is time-consuming
close ended survey question
in contrast to open-ended survey questions close ended questions is answered with a yes or a no or by choosing a single response from several alternatives

close ended questions are the quickest and easiest to score
random selection
random selection is a procedure for selecting a sample of people to study in which everyone in the population has an equal chance of being chosen
social desirability bias
a type of response bias in surveys in which people respond to a question by trying to portray themselves in a favorable light rather than responding in an accurate and truthful manner
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the direction and strength of the linear a relationship between 2 variables, which can range from -1.00 to +1.00

the primary benefit of conducting correlational research's prediction

correlational research allows researchers to predict a change in one variable by knowing the value of another variable

a correlation act or very near 0 indicates the absence of a linear relationship

0 correlation may mean one of 2 things, no association or there is a curvilinear relationship between a and B

a correlation close to 0 would have dots scattered all around the graph. a correlation near one would have dots lining up on an imaginary straight line running between the X and Y axis of the graph

researchers seldom find a perfect where near perfect correlation between variables

in social science correlation rarely exceeds .60. the reason for this is that many factors determine human behavior
disadvantage of correlational studies
major disadvantage of correlational study is that it cannot definitely determine the cause of the relationship between 2 variables
- besides knowing the strength and direction of the relationship, it's extremely valuable to know which variable caused a change in the other

this methodological disadvantage can result in the reverse causality problem, which occurs whenever either of the 2 variables correlated with each other could just as plausibly be the cause or the effect

sometimes when you have a significant correlation between 2 variables, there is only one possible causal direction ( such as the strong correlation found between the victim of physical abuse as a child and being that perpetrator of family violence as an adult)

another way to address the problem of reverse causality is to measure your variables twice
- in such a cross lagged panel correlation study, the 2 variables are measured at 2 different times, and correlations between the variables across time are examined

2 problems:
-we can never definitely infer causality from correlational data
- a 2nd problem resulting from the inability to competently determine causality is that it's possible that a 3rd unspecified variable causes differences in both variables under study. This is known as the 3rd variable problem
experimental method
we use the experimental method to examine cause and effect relationship

in an experiment, researchers manipulate one variable by exposing research participants to live at contrasting levels, then observes what effects this manipulation has on the other variable that has not been manipulated
independent variable
the variable that is being manipulated is called the independent variable, it's the one the experimenter is testing as the possible cause of any changes that might occur in the other variable
dependent variable
the variable whose changes are considered to be the effect of the manipulative changes in the independent variable is called the dependent variable

the dependent variable is the response measure of an experiment that is dependent on the participant's response to the experimenters manipulation of the setting
field experiment
similar to the more common laboratory experiment except it's run in a natural setting and participants often not realize they are being studied.
-Because of the more natural atmosphere, participants tend to be less suspicious of what they are experiencing best their response tends to be more spontaneous.
- The greater realism increases the studies external validity, which is the extent to which its finding to me generalize to people beyond those in the study itself

one drawback to field experiment is that researchers have less control over what is happening to each participant during the study because they are in the setting were many variables are uncontrollable.

Another drawback is that experimenters have less control over precisely measuring the dependent variable because participants often move outside an area of easy observation.

These problems of control decrease the studies internal validity, the extent to which cause-and-effect conclusions can validly be made
external validity
the extent to which a study's findings can be generalized to people beyond those in the study itself
internal validity
the extent to which cause-and-effect conclusions can validly been made in the study
laboratory experiments
most social psychology experiments are conducted in laboratories

because of researchers desire to control as much of the experimental situation is possible in order to properly assign Causality an air of artificiality may exist in the lab

despite the potential problem of external validity in some lab experiments, recent analysis of many aggression studies conducted inside and outside the laboratory found that the results in both settings were very similar

findings suggest that lab experiments on aggression appeared to have adequate external validity, and that field experiments appear to have adequate internal validity

-given the ability of the observational method to capture the richness of social behavior as it happens, many social psychologists believe that this approach is best suited for theory building.
-In contrast because the experimental method can determine the cause of events it is generally considered the best method for theory testing

the best overall strategy in developing theories of social behavior that are valid and useful is to take a multi-method approach-it only different methods study the same topic, thereby capitalizing on each method's strength and controlling for their weaknesses
interaction effect
an experimental result that occurs when 2 independent variables in combination have different effects on the dependent variable then alone
random assignment
placement of research participants into experimental conditions in a manner that guarantees that all have an equal chance of being exposed to each level of the independent variable

random assignment is important component of control

oftentimes in field studies, groupings of participant already exists
the findings from a single study are less convincing than the findings from a series of related studies

meta-analysis is the use of statistical techniques to summarize results from similar studies on a specific topic to estimate the reliability and overall size of the effect

to turn meta-analysis literally means analysis of analysis
file drawer effect
scientific journals are more likely to publish studies were results that support research hypothesis than they are to publish studies that have nonsignificant findings. This sort of publication bias is referred to as the file drawer effect because the unpublished results are tucked away in researchers file Cabinet
virtual environment technology
virtual environment technology creates a virtual research environment using a computer does allowing for a high degree of control that a researcher can obtain in a laboratory experiment

early studies employing virtual environment technology suggest that participants behave relatively naturally in such settings

still in its infancy, it's currently being used to study topics such as conformity, eyewitness testimony, and violent video games

this technology is not meant to replace traditional field and laboratory studies, but instead to provide another research vehicle that social psychologist can use in their work
the Internet
a relatively new medium for communication many social psychologists are employing it as an avenue to collect data

one of the biggest advantage in using the Internet is that researchers camera crew participants from the entire world and test them remotely.

-This technology has greatly facilitated the ability of
social psychologist to conduct cross-cultural research

- other advantages of the Internet as a data collection site are that studies can be run without the presence of researchers without the need for large lavatories without expensive equipment and without limitations on the time of day in which the data are collected these advantages can yield huge datasets. The ability to do in weeks what previously took months or years to accomplish
implicit or unconscious measures
For many years social psychologists have realized that research participants are often unwilling or unable to accurately assess their thoughts and feelings using standard self-report measures.

As a means of overcoming such self-report problems social psychologists have developed computer programs that are designed to tap into participants unconscious thoughts and feelings. The most popular of these implicit or unconscious measures is the implicit Association test
implicit Association test IAT
the IAT is the most popular of these implicit or in conscious measures the IAT is a computer assisted the valuation developed by Anthony Greenwald

the IAT is a technique for measuring implicit attitudes and belief based on the idea that people will give faster responses to presented concepts that are more strongly associated in memory

if participants take longer to categorize pleasant words such as good when they are paired with a black person while also taking longer to categorize unpleasant words as bad when they are paired with white rather than black faces this indicates an implicit bias

studies suggest that the IAT is a better predictor of some forms of behavior, such as discrimination, and traditional self-report methods and is less vulnerable to faking
Contemporary self theories
contemporary self theories are based on the insights of James and Mead

both describe the SELF as having 2 separate aspects, the self as SUBJECT of Awareness "the I", and the self as OBJECT of Awareness "the ME"

both James and mead's theories have profoundly influenced social psychology

-James writings reflecting the aspect of or hot perspective on the nature of human behavior
- Meads writings reflecting the cognitive workload approach

their initial ideas on how we define ourselves and how we consciously strive to become what we desire involves 2 essential human characteristic: self awareness and self regulation
self theories: the "I"
the I is the aspect of your self that is actively perceiving, thinking, and behaving in your world

as a self, "I" am conscious of many things in my world, and sometimes "I" focused my consciousness on myself ("me")
self theories: the "Me"
them "me" is the aspect of your self that the "I" is sometimes perceiving and thinking about

contemporary social psychologist referred to the "Me" as self-concept
self-concept is the sum total of a person's thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object

contemporary social psychologist referred to the "Me" as self-concept

self-concept also consists of numerous evaluation of self as being good, act, or mediocre.

This evaluation aspect of self-concept is called self-esteem
self-esteem is the evaluation aspect of self concept
William James definition (psychologists) of self-concept
according to William James, things become part of your self concept through your emotional identification with them. Self-concept includes anything that symbolizes and affirms who and what you are.

The way you define yourself is not stable but rather constantly changing
George Meads (sociologists) definition of self-concept
Mead describes how the self develops in infancy and how people as selves actively shape their social reality

he asserts that human infants are not born a self, but rather the self emerges through social interaction

according to Mead, the self develops as children acquire language and start taking the role of other people in their play activities

by internalizing the beliefs and next patients commonly held by the larger society-what he called the generalized other-the person becomes a fully mature self
self awareness
self awareness is a psychological state in which you take yourself as an object of attention. To have a self-concept, you must be able to engage in self awareness.

We are not born with self-awareness and ability, but we developed it

-infants between the ages of 9 to 12 months treated their mirror image as if it was another child, unable to take themselves as an object of awareness

- children 18 months of age exhibited self recognition-and dust, self awareness ability-by staring in the mirror and touching the mysterious spot on their noses. Recognizing the image in the mirror as their own, a realize they look different.

- Self awareness occurs at the same time as children's brains are experiencing a rapid growth of spindle neuron's--which are not present at birth--in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex
self awareness in other animals
the only other animals known to have spindle neuron in the brain are the great apes, our closest genetic relatives, and certain species of whales and dolphins

research further supports the hypothesis that are great 8 cousins such as chimpanzees, one of those, orangutans, gorillas do indeed possess self awareness

there is evidence that whales and dolphins, along with elephants may also possess self awareness

self awareness allows us to analyze our thoughts and feelings as well as anticipate how others might respond to Wes interpersonally. Through self awareness, we develop a self-concept which helps us regulate our behavior and adapt to our surroundings.
disengaging self awareness
we are not overly self-aware

selfhood is most apparent when we have the luxury of time for contemplation.

-When we need to focus on difficult task requiring quick decisions, imaging studies indicate that the self-awareness temporary disappears as her brain divert cognitive resources towards the task at hand

- when circumstances require the brain to divert most of its cognitive resources to carry out a difficult task, neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is inhibited, which switch off self awareness

- from an evolutionary standpoint this make sense. When encountering sudden danger quick action is more likely to ensure your safety and survival.

-One additional consequence of the fluctuating nature of self awareness is that while and maybe an adaptive response, disengaging self awareness may also result in less humane responses.

In situations requiring quick and difficult choices we are less likely to consider our personal values or societal standards before responding
private and public self awareness
-people are motivated primarily by desire to meet personal goals and are responsive largely to their own attitudes and feelings.

-Others argue that we are largely a reflected image of our social group and that before acting, we consider how we will be judged by others.

-Self awareness research indicates that whether behavior is more influence by personal or social standards is partially determined by whether self awareness is focused on private or public self aspects

we all have the ability to engage in either private or public self awareness. Researchers have also determined that some people spend more time self reflecting and others. This

habitual tendency to engage in self awareness is known as the personality trait of self-consciousness
private self awareness
private self awareness is the temporary state of being aware of hidden, private aspects of the self, such as your personal attitudes and beliefs, as well as your current mood

one effect of private self-awareness is greater adherence to personal standards of behavior

when privately self aware, you're more likely to act in line with your personal beliefs than to conform to social pressure. Also makes you more aware of and responsive to your current mood. Example. If you are happy and become privately self aware, your happiness is intensified.
public self-awareness
public self-awareness is the temporary state of being aware of the public self aspect such as your physical appearance and the way you talk and behave in public settings

being watched by others, having your picture taken, seeing yourself in the full-length mirror can induce public awareness

one effect of public awareness is greater adherence to social standards of behavior, a heightened degree of conformity. This increase conformity when publicly self-aware is often preceded by concerns about being negatively evaluated by others
the habitual tendency to engage in self awareness is known as self-consciousness. Just as there are 2 types of self-awareness public and private, there are also 2 types of self-consciousness public and private

these traits are 2 distinct tendencies; therefore, a person could either be very attentive to both sides of the self, attentive to wind but inattentive to another, were relatively inattentive to both

Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss Developed the CSC ( The Self/Social Connection Scale).
- Found That the Mean College Score for College Students on Private Self-Consciousness Was 26
- the Average Score for Public Self-Consciousness Was 19.
-The Higher Your Score Is above One of These Values, The More of This Type of Self-Consciousness You Probably Possess
private self-consciousness
private self-consciousness is the tendency to be aware of the private aspect of the self

many private self attention effects are the same whether they result from the psychological state of private self awareness or the personality trait of private self-consciousness

individuals high in private self-consciousness behaves more in line with their personal standards and react more strongly to their current moods then do their last self-conscious counterparts

because they are more attentive to their personal attitudes, values, and motives, high private self-conscious people tend to have self concepts that are more complex than those in low private self-consciousness

one reason is that greater attention to private self aspect intensifies current emotional states.

people who are high and private health consciousness follows their own personal standards in daily decisions, they also tend to stew in their own juices when someone irritates them

People High on Private Self-Consciousness and Low on Public Self-Consciousness Are the Ones Most Likely to Act According to Their True Attitudes
public self-consciousness
public self-consciousness is the tendency to be aware of publicly displayed self aspects

people high in public self-consciousness pay a lot of attention to how they look. They also feel the pressure to form to others opinions and expectations. They may feel anxious when the public spotlight is That

People High-in Public Self-Consciousness Are More Concerned about How Others Judge Them, Are More Conforming to Group Norms, and More Likely to withdraw from Embarrassing Situations.

The Tendency To Comply With External Standards encompasses Physical Appearance As Well. High Public Self-Conscious Individuals Are More Concerned about Their Physical Appearance And Are More Likely to Judge Others Based on Their Looks.

People High On Public Self-Consciousness, Regardless of Their Level of Private Self-Consciousness, Are Much Less Likely to Publicly Act According to Their True Attitudes
Drawbacks to High Private Self-Consciousness
Many Private Self Attention Affects Are the Same Whether from the Psychological State of Private Self Awareness or the Personality Traits of Private Self-Consciousness.

Those High in Private Self-Consciousness Behave More in Line with Their Personal Standards and React More Strongly to the Current Moods Then Those With Less Self-Conscious Counterparts

Because They Are More Attentive A Tentative Half Self-Concept That Are More Complex. However, Habitual Attention to Private Self Aspects Can Contribute to Depression and Chronic Unhappiness

One Possibility Is That the Greater Attention to Private Self Aspect Intensifies Current Emotional State.

-When People's Experience Fall Short of Their Expectations Resulting Disappointment Would Be Heightened by Prolonging Private Self Attention. Does the Trait of Private Self-Consciousness or the

-thus, Private Self Awareness Might Encourage Destructive Self-Critical Analysis

Study Suggests That Reducing Self Awareness by Engaging in Distracting Activities That Shift Attention Away from The self--Such As Watching Television--Can Improve Well-Being Among Depressed Individuals
Self-Regulation Is This Self's Most Important Function

Self-Regulation Is the Ways in Which People Control and Direct Their Own Actions. You Must Be Self Aware To Engage in Self-Regulation

Self-Regulation Involves Activation of the Brain Region--the Anterior Cingulate Cortex--As in Self Awareness, As Well As Activation of Areas in the Prefrontal Lobe Regions

Brain Imaging Studies Have Found Significant Activation Of These Brain Regions When People Are Performing Difficult Tasks Requiring Considerable Cognitive Effort and Attention, but Not Doing Simple Memory Recall Task

Not All Self-Regulation Is Beneficial
Drawbacks to High Self-Regulation
Not All Self-Regulation Is Beneficial. Brain Imaging Research Suggests That OCD Which Is Characterized by Unhealthy Levels of Self-Regulation, Involves Abnormal Functioning of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

People Who Highly Self Regulate Can Also Be Seen As Fake By Others, They Are like Chameleons Constantly Changing Their Personalities To Fit Others
Control Theory of Self- Regulation
A Theory Contending That Through Self Awareness, People Compare Their Behavior to a Standard And If There Is a Discrepancy, They Worked to Reduce It

Charles Carver And Michael Scheier's Came up with This Theory Proposing That Self Awareness Allows Us to Assess How We Are Doing in Meeting Our Goals And Ideas. The Core Idea and Control Theory Is a Cognitive Feedback Loop: TOTE ( Test-Operate-Test-Exit)

- According to the Control Theory of Self-Regulation, Self Awareness Provides the Means by Which We Assess How Successful We Are in Meeting Our Standards. When We Become Self Aware, We Enter the 1st Test Phase. If We Notice a Difference between Our Actual Behavior in Our Standards, We Enter the Operate Phase In Which We Try to Change Our Behavior to Match the Standard. Soon We Again Self Reflect--The 2nd Test Phase--to Discover Whether We Have Reduced or Eliminated the Discrepancy. When There Is No Longer a Difference between Our Behavior and the Standard, We Exit This Control Process. This Test and Operate Cycle Can Repeat Itself until There Is No Difference between Our Behavior and the Standard
Self Discrepancies
Self Discrepancies Are Discrepancies between Our Self-Concept And How We Would Ideally like to Be ( Our Ideal Self) Or Believe Others Think We Should Be ( ought Self)

Self Discrepancies Can Produce Strong Emotions. When We Realize There's a Discrepancy between Our Actual Self and Our Ideal Self, We Experienced Dejection-Related Emotions, Such As Disappointment, Frustration, and Depression.

On the Other Hand, When We Notice a Discrepancy between Our Actual Self And What We Think We Ought To Possess Our (Ought SELF) to Meet Our Obligations and Responsibilities, We Are Vulnerable to Education-Related Emotions, Such As Anxiety and Guilt

In a Number of Studies they Found That People with Considerable Self Discrepancies Not Only Experience Negative Self Focused Emotions, but Are Also More Indecisive in Their Behavior, Have Unclear Self-Concepts, and Evaluate Themselves Negatively.

The More Important the Self Discrepant Attributes Are to the Self-Concept, The Greater the Negative Emotions Experienced

Negative emotions hinder the type of self-regulation necessary for achieving long-term goals. When people become upset they tend to give in to their immediate in pulses to make themselves felt better.

Although high capacity for self-regulation appears to improve your chances of success in life, self-regulating on one task often makes it hard to immediately self regulate on unrelated task

because complex task require greater self-regulation prior self-regulation is more likely to harm people's subsequent activities when these later activities require higher order cognitive processing
strength model of self-regulation
Roy Baumeister

1. At any given time, we have only a limited amount of energy available to self regulate
2. Each exercise of self-regulation depletes this limited resource for a period of time
3.] Exercising self-regulation in one activity, we will find it harder to regulate our behavior in an unrelated activity

glucose from the bloodstream provides the chemical fuel for neurons to fire impulses so that specific brain regions can function effectively. When the brain consumes glucose faster than it can be replenished, stream parole functioning is just wrapped it, producing cognitive deficits

self-regulation is especially sensitive to glucose fluctuation. Researchers found that after exerting self-control on a task participants who consumed a glucose drink showed significantly less self-regulatory deficits on a later task

this suggests that depleting the available supply of glucose more severely impairs brain functions associated with self-control than more basic and simple cognitive abilities because self-control is a relatively advanced human capacity
Self schema
one of the most important types of schema is self schema which is a cognitive structure that represents how you think about yourself in a particular domain and how you organize your experience in that domain.

Just as self concepts has been previously described as a theory that you have about yourself, self schemas can be thought of as the hypothesis of the Self theory established through life experiences.

self schemas help you perceive organize interpret and use information about yourself in a particular area of your life
schema is a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about some stimulus which is built up from experience and which selectively and automatically guides the Processing new information.

a schema directs our attention to relevant information giving us a framework for understanding it.

You can have schemas about people, things, and events.

social psychologist has expanded considerable effort to better understand how information about the self is stored and categorized in memory. the computer has often been used as a metaphor: the subjective self the (the "I" ) consist of program components, the objective self (the self-concept or the "ME" is the data aspect of the computer.

to describe how self-knowledge is cognitively stored researchers have borrowed the term schemas from cognitive psychology
if people are not self schematic for a particular quality they are not invested in or concerned about it: it's not relevant to their self-concept

Markus reasoned that possessing a schema would make it easier for people to process and recall from memory any information relevant to the schema. Predicted that schematics would be able to decide faster whether adjectives relevant to their self schema were descriptive of them then with aschematics, and that they would be able to recall more behavioral incidents from their past that were indicative of the self schema
spontaneous self-concept
McGuire and colleague 1978 indicate that context is a major determinant in activating certain self schema

the aspect of the self-concept that becomes salient and activated in a particular setting is called spontaneous self-concept

research suggests that when one aspect of our self-concept is spontaneously activated, potentially conflicting self schemas are more likely to be inhibited from being simultaneously activated

whether specific personal qualities lead to a self schema is central to your self-concept often depends on the degree to which it stands out in everyday interactions

suggest that when members of one group behave counter to stereotypes, their performance is more likely to be noticed and commented upon and are the stereotype consistent performance of other group members such as Jeremy Lin
independent self
independent self is a way of conceiving the self in terms of unique, personal attributes and is a being that is separate and autonomous from the group

Generation Next embody the independent self in America

Latino Americans tend to have highly independent cells despite their collectivist heritage. Latino Americans with interdependent selves are more likely to be recent immigrants
interdependent self
interdependent self is a way of conceiving the self in terms of social rows and as a being that is embedded in and dependent on the group
in an individualistic society people develop a belief in their own uniqueness and diversity. this sense of individuality is nurtured and fostered within the educational system and its manifestation is considered a sign of maturity

the differing view of the individual due to a cultures collectivist or individualistic orientation not only shaped the structure of self-concept, it also determines the leaves about how self development should proceed

cultures do not create people with rigidly independent or interdependent selves. Situational factors can trigger spontaneous self-concepts in people that run counter to the independent self or interdependent self fostered by their culture
in a collectivist society, uniqueness and individual differences are often seen as impediments to proper self growth. Instead, the self becomes most meaningful and complete when it is closely identified with not independent of the group
cultural frame switching
the process by which by cultureless switch between different culturally appropriate behaviors depending on the context

individuals with a bicultural background such as Asian Americans or Native Americans view themselves and the world through both individualist collectivist lenses which can cause internal conflict as they attempt to account so individualist strivings with collectivist yearnings

successful biculturalism entails retaining ancestral values and practice while incorporating new values and practice of the dominant culture this leads to a more inclusive and complex self-concept
gender identity
the identification of oneself as a male or female. One important gender distinction that girls and boys learn in North America involves the degree to which they should define the self in terms of close relationships

studies indicate that girls are more likely to be raised to think act and defined themselves in ways that emphasis their emotional connectedness to others this results in girls developing cooperative relationships and valuing intimate friendships

these gender differences persist into adulthood fostering the construction of a relational self concept among women and an independent self-concept among men
relational self-concept
individuals who construct a relational self-concept place high-value on their close relationships. more often seen in woman
independent self-concept
in contrast to relational self-concept, independent self-concept express less interest in cultivating emotional relationships

a 5 culture study indicates that Americans and Australians woman's self-concept are not like Asians self-concept.

-They found that while individualist-collectivist cultural differences are captured mostly by the extent to which people see themselves as acting as independent agents in relation to the group gender differences are best summarized by the extent to which people regard themselves as emotionally relate it to other individuals

- this suggests that gender socialization has more to do with encouraging girls to pay attention to the emotional pulse of their social relationships while discouraging boys from doing so

- individualist-collectivist socialize has decidedly different effect on the nature of self-concept than male-female social life nation
social identities
social identities are those aspect of our self-concepts based on our group membership. They establish what and where we are in social terms

one consequence of group identification is an internalization of the group's view of social reality.

Social identities provide members with a shared set of values beliefs and goals about themselves and their social world

Mead would say to have a social identity is to internalize the group within the individual, which in turn serves to regulate and coordinate the attitudes and behavior of the separate group members
ethnic identity
an individual's sense of personal identification with a particular ethnic group
Phinney's 3 stage model
stage I, unexamined ethnic identity stage: individual often have not personally examine ethnic identity issues and may incorporate negative stereotypes from the dominant culture to their own self-concept, resulting in feelings of inadequacy

stage 2, ethnic identity search:
may have experience that dislodge their worldview, making them receptive to exploring their own ethnicity. In many cases, the catalyst for this is a personal experience with prejudice. This stage often entails an intense period of searching in which people passionately consumed ethnic literature and participate in cultural events. Some individuals may also develop in oppositional identity in which they actively reject values of the dominant culture.

Stage 3, achieved ethnic identity:
a deeper understanding and appreciation of one's ethnicity. Confidence and security in a newfound ethnic identity allows people to fill ethnic pride along with a new understanding of their own place in the dominant culture.
-They are able to internalize aspects of the dominant culture that are acceptable such as financial security independence and pursuit of education and stand against those that are oppressive such as racism and sexism

studies support this view of the mental health benefits of ethnic identity development. Findings suggest that when our commitment and attitudes towards our ethnic group are strongly positive, they can serve as a buffer to negative stereotypes

although such positive social identities can't short-circuit the negative effects that prejudice can inflict on self-esteem they are not always effective.
self presentations
self presentations are either consciously or automatically constructed
strategic self presentation
the process of constructing and presenting the self in order to shape other people's impression and achieve ulterior goals

impression management can be stressful and is associated with increases in heart rate and blood pressure

it can also require considerable self-regulation and as the self presentation demands increase people sometimes lose control of their performance

social blunders and not being able to project an appropriate present itself often causes embarrassment. Embarrassment is accompanied by an activation of the sympathetic nervous system which is part of our nervous system that prepares us to deal with threatening situations

automatic self presentations are efficient because they conserve cognitive resource that can be devoted to other task. The idea that self presentation involves both automatic and deliberate cognitive processes we flex the dual process approach to social cognition.

according to dual very humans employ to broad cognitive strategies to interact in their social world one involving effortless thinking and the other involving effortful thinking

2 common differences between most of the self presentations we construct in non-intimate and intimate relationships involved in valuation concerns and cognitive effort
7 self presentation strategies
1. Ingratiation ( brownnoser)
-most commonly employed to gain acceptance
- others impressions are shaped through flattery

2. Modesty
-considered more feminine response and often used by women
-should only be used when others are aware of your success and an recognize that an underrepresentation is taking place
-often used to gain acceptance

3. self-promotion ( bragger)
-used in situations where competency is highly valued by striving to convey positive information about the self either through one's behavior or by telling others about one's positive assets and accomplishments
- people who use self motions want to be respected for their intelligence and competence that's the strategy is commonly employed during work-related interactions
- self-promotion is considered to be a masculine response following achievement
- self-promotion is often effective in conveying a positive social image, self promotion does not always result in undesired consequences. Because in addition to evaluating competence, precievers also judge such interpersonal dimensions as likability and humility.
- to counter this self promoters often a knowledge possessing minor falls or shortcomings or enlist others to extol their virtues

4. exemplification (saint-like)
is is is self-promotion is exemplification which is a self presentation designed to elicit perceptions of integrity and moral worthiness at the same time it arouses guilt and emulation and others
- they also run the risk of being socially shunned because some people experience guilt and shame around these individuals because they are reminded of their own shortcomings
- leaders who embody this in their present it sells foster strong loyalty and group cohesion among followers
the danger of taking on a saintlike role is that one runs the risk of being perceived as a hypocrite if actions deviate from this moral high ground

5. intimidation ( bullies)
- when people want to coerce others into doing something they use intimidation
- a self presentation tactic of arousing fear and gaining power by convincing others that they are powerful and or dangerous

6. supplication (beggers, always asking for help)
- people who advertise their weakness and or their dependence on others hoping to solicit help or sympathy out of a sense of social obligation
- this technique while effective in many circumstances loaded with psychological landmines
- one problem is that people tend to blame the victim often believing that their suffering is self inflicted.
-Another problem is that even though supplicators often receive help and support, they are privately judged as poorly functioning individuals which can take a toll and lead to a loss of self-esteem

7. self handicapping
- the most interesting of all self presentation strategies is self handicapping a strategy in which a person creates obstacles to his or her own performance either to provide an excuse for failure or to enhance success
- creating obstacles to success can not only protect self-esteem, it can also enhance it
- people are more likely to use the strategy when they are being evaluated on skills or attributes central to their self-concept
-there are 2 forms of self handicap: behavioral and self-reported handicapping
self-reported handicapping
self-reported handicapping is the milder form of self handicap

the beauty of self-reported handicap is that it provides an excuse for failure without actually hampering performance in fact it can actually enhance performance by reducing anxiety
behavioral self handicapping
behavioral self handicapping involves people handicapping themselves either by not adequately preparing for a task or by using drugs or alcohol before hand to inhibit their performance

both women and men equally use self-reported handicaps but numerous studies indicate that men are more likely to behaviorally self handicap especially when they are publicly self aware
high self monitors
high self monitors are social chameleons

we all use self presentation strategies but some of us are more likely than others to construct self presentations that best fit what ever social situations we encounter

according to Mark Snyder 1987 these differences are related to a personality trait called self-monitoring

self-monitoring is the tendency to use keels from other people's self presentations in controlling our own self presentation.

People high himself monitoring are extroverted social actors who spend a considerable time learning about other people and emphasize impression management in their social relationships

high self-monitoring persons are skilled impression managers who experience significantly less physiological arousal due to social Encounters even while striving to perform whatever behavior projects a set positive self image

when high self monitors employ impression management strategies they favor those that are positive, and are particularly adept at using ingratiation, self promotion, and exemplification to achieve favorable impressions

on the negative side people high in self-monitoring have less intimate and committed social relationships they tend to judge people more on superficial care restricts such as physical appearance and social activities rather than their attitudes and values
a person's evaluation of their self-concept

during the course of human evolution, self-esteem emerged as an internal sociometer of our sense of group inclusion

individuals were more likely to survive and reproduce when firmly embedded within a social group rather than being forced to survive on their own

consistent with sociometer model of self-esteem, when people behave in ways that decrease the likelihood they will be rejected or when others socially embraced them, their self-esteem increases
self-esteem influences how we approach and respond to life challenges
most people regard themselves more positively than they regard their peers

this better than average effect offers people protection against social stress and fosters better mental health

a recent multinational study of self-esteem indicates that the vast majority of people who identify as having low self-esteem do not see themselves as worthless, incompetent losers. Instead they are people who evaluate cells more naturally than either very positively or very negatively

most people do not have a very negative self views

research indicates that individuals with low self-esteem are generally more unhappy and pessimistic more need for social acceptance less willing to take risk to benefit themselves more likely to encounter academic and financial problems less likely to have successful careers and less likely to be physically healthy than high self-esteem individuals

there is evidence that those who differ in self-esteem also differ in their emotional reactions to positive and negative daily events. When experiencing positive emotions following desirable outcome high self-esteem individuals tend to savior their feelings while low self-esteem individuals tend to dampen these emotions and may even become anxious. No self-esteem people are more adversely affected by negative setbacks then high self-esteem people.

it appears that high self-esteem people self regulate in a manner that helps to sustain their highly positive self regard, where as low self-esteem people regulate their emotions in a way that maintains the relatively low self regard.

studies suggest that low self-esteem persons are more adversely affected by negative events because they appear to be less motivated to prepare their negative moods.
-One reason for lack of motivation to engage in self-regulation may be that low self-esteem people are simply more accustomed to negative moods they come to accept them more readily
-another possibility for low self-esteem persons is that negative emotions are accompanied by 2 experiences that are especially harmful to their motivation to self regulate
1. the negative event depletes their self-regulatory resource
2. this depletion may be particularly harmful to them because engaging in mood regulation may require more energy than it does for high self-esteem people
self enhancement
the self enhancement perspective embodies the emotional or hot perspectives that human nature that is based on the notion that people are primarily motivated to maintain high self-esteem

Self enhancement theorists content that people with low self-esteem will seek out positive social feedback because it will bolster their self-esteem.
self verification
in contrast to the self enhancement perspective, the self verification perspective also known as the self consistency view reflects the cognitive or cold viewpoint of human nature

-according to this view people are motivated to maintain consistent beliefs about themselves even when these self believes are negative
- by verifying firmly held self believes people feel more secure that their social world is predictable and controllable

for those with high self-esteem there's no conflict with these 2 motives because receiving positive feedback verifies positive self belief.
-However for low self-esteem people these 2 motors often conflict: the need for self enhancement causes those with low self-esteem to seek positive feedback, but that action conflicts with their desire to verify existing negative self believes.

self verification theorist argue that this positive feedback will create the fear in people with low self-esteem that they may not know themselves after all and therefore they will reject it
the interplay between self enhancement and self verification motives
what happens when people with low self-esteem received positive feedback? Do they accept it and enhance their self-esteem or would they reject it because it doesn't verify their self-concept?

research suggests that people follow a three-step process in resolving this conflict

step 1. The initial reaction is to self enhance health of her with more time to think about the feedback

step 2 self verification dominates thinking

step 3 is accepting this positive feedback requires a major reassessment of their self-concept, people will reject the feedback because self verification override self enhancement

low self-esteem people are their own harshest critics. Advice given to low self-esteem people in many popular self-help books and the technique used by the self-esteem lady is unlikely to raise self-esteem over the long haul in low self-esteem individuals

individualists show a clear self enhancing tendency, collectivists do not appear to self enhance that's the self verification may be a universal human motive, the self enhancement motive appears to be shaped more by cultural factors
is there a dark side to high self-esteem
in cross-cultural comparisons of self enhancement tendencies it appears that individualistic cultures are much more likely than collectivist cultures to believe that high self-esteem is essential for mental health and life satisfaction

studies have found evidence that there can be a hidden cost to try to achieve or maintain high self-esteem: certain individuals with superficially high self-esteem tend to react with aggression when someone challenges their favorable self-assessment

the source of this aggressive response appears to be a defensive reaction to avoid having to make any downward revision of self-esteem

kernis asserts that it is the stability of high self-esteem that determines whether threats to self esteem leads to aggression.
-States that people with unstable high self-esteem are the ones who become angry and hostile when their self-worth is challenged and they have trouble controlling these emotions
unstable high self-esteem
people with unstable high self-esteem are likely to become angry and hostile when their self-worth his challenge and they have trouble controlling their emotions

research also indicates that people with high unstable self-esteem is associated with narcissism, a personality trait characterized by insecurity and the need for constant reassurance

those with unstable high self-esteem lack confidence of their own self-worth, they are more dependent on having it regularly allocated by others. When validation is denied by social criticism these unstable high self-esteem people exhibit poor self-regulation and react by attacking their critics

it appears that underlying the unstable high self-esteem of narcissists are actually 2 conflicting types of self-esteem: explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem

Christian Jordan and colleagues found support for the hypothesis that unstable high self-esteem individuals have 2 conflicting types of self- esteem
1 consciously positive and the other unconsciously negative
stable high self-esteem
stable high self-esteem individuals may not enjoy being criticize, but they can control their emotions and are no more aggressive in such circumstances than low self-esteem people. Their general desire to enhance self-esteem is not desired by a narcissistic defensiveness but instead is a sign of mental health
explicit self-esteem
explicit self-esteem is a person's conscious and deliver it if valuation of his or her self-concept

explicit self-esteem is what people report when they are asked directly how they feel about themselves on self-report measures
implicit self-esteem
a person's unintentional and perhaps unconscious evaluation of his or her self-concept

implicit self-esteem is typically assessed using implicit Association test IAT measures

one version of this test measures the automatic associations between a person's self concept and positive and negative affect

results indicate that among individuals with high explicit self-esteem, those with relatively low in place at self-esteem have feelings of self-worth that depends more on other social approval, their appearance, and how well they performed on competitive task. if they fail they are more likely to quit while high explicit high implicit self-esteem persons often persist in the face of failure.

Researchers also found that high explicit, low implicit self-esteem individuals scored very high on narcissism, high explicit self-esteem persons who also have high implicit self-esteem score very low on narcissism.
implicit Association test IAT
implicit self-esteem is typically assessed using implicit Association test IAT measures

one version of this test measures the automatic associations between a person's self concept and positive and negative affect

IAT scores are computed by taking the difference between the average response time to the 2 test stages
-the assumption is that participants with high implicit self-esteem has many positive associations and few negative associations with the self as a result the self positive pleasant task will be very easy for them and they will have faster response time but the self positive and pleasant task will be more difficult and they will have slow response time.

It is assumed that participants would low implicit self-esteem have many negative associations and few positive associations with the self. Therefore they will have faster response time for self positive unpleasant associations than self positive pleasant associations
narcissism is a personality trait characterized by insecurity, the need for constant reassurance, and the tendency to respond to negative feedback with anger and aggression. Jordan and colleagues 2003 found that explicit self-esteem interacts with implicit self-esteem to create either high or low levels of narcissism.

In contrast, those high in both explicit and implicit self-esteem show levels of narcissism no higher than people who are low in both implicit and explicit self-esteem
self evaluation maintenance model
a theory predicting under what conditions people are likely to react to the success of others with either pride or jealousy

this theory primarily explains how we draw closer to or draw away from successful people do to our desire to maintain or enhance self-esteem
social reflection (basking in the glory of someone)
in social reflection, self-esteem is reinforced by identifying ourselves with the outstanding accomplishments of others.

exp. basking in the glory of our loved one who may be a doctor or our favorite sports team when they win
Social comparison (comparing self to someone)
social comparison is a process in which we evaluate our accomplishments by comparing them to others.

Our self-esteem suffers when we are outperformed, but it increases when we surpassed them.

Self reflection and self comparison produce opposite self esteem results when others excel at some tasks: self-esteem increases with reflection, But decreases with comparison.

the stronger the emotional bond between you and the successful person, the stronger the self-esteem of fact for both reflection and comparison. Thus, you gain or lose more self-esteem if your best friend accomplishes some great task then if your former third-grade classmate does

what determines whether you engage in reflection or comparison following someone else's success?
-1 important factor is the relevance of the task to your self-concept
social comparison process
according to Tesser, interpersonal relationships self-esteem is maintained through 2 processes: social reflection and social comparison

the implications of Tesser's social comparison theory is that people who make you feel good about yourself are either individuals who are :
1. less competent than you in domains that are relevant to your self-concept ( social comparison)
2. very talented to domains that are irrelevant to your self-concept ( social reflection)

consistent with social reflection process students perceive their best friends as having at least equal ability to themselves in activities that were not self relevant

in instances when social comparison in a self relevant domain makes you look bad
1. one way is to exaggerate the ability of those who outperform you. By seeing your victory as truly outstanding you can still perceive yourself as well above average.
2. reduce your closeness to the better performing person, though this comes at a high price loss of friendship
3. change your beliefs so that the task is no longer important to your self-concept
the " I "
the " I "

this is awareness directed towards oneself and it can be focused on private self aspect ( e.g., emotions, motives, personal standards) or public self aspect ( e.g., physical appearance, self presentations). the tendency to engage in the self-awareness state is known as self-consciousness, and it too is described in private and public terms

these are the ways in which we control and direct our own actions. You must be self aware to engage in self-regulation
the "ME"
the " ME "

Due to awareness, we developed a theory about ourselves.
- Gender Identity: the knowledge that one is a male or female
- Self Schemas: the hypothesis that make up self-concept
- Spontaneous Self-Concept: the aspect of the self-concept that is salient and activated in a particular setting
- Social identities: the aspect of the self-concept based on group membership

we not only developed a theory of ourselves, but we also developed in the valuation of this theory. The need to enhance self-esteem is a primary mode test but may not be as strong as the need to verify the self-concept. In social relationships, we can enhance self-esteem by basking in others reflected glory (social reflection) or by comparing ourselves with those we outperform (social comparison). High self-esteem people are generally happier and healthier and can regulate their moods better than those low in self-esteem
the nature of attitudes
in 1935, in the Handbook of Social Psychology, Gorgon Allport declared that attitude was social psychology's most indispensable concept

the principal reason Attitude concept has been so popular in social psychology is that attitudes are supposed to influence behavior. Any concept that is believed to have such power is bound to come under serious scrutiny by those who desire to unlock the mysteries of human functioning.
3 different types of Attitude Antecedents
attitudes are believed to be formed through affective, behavioral, and cognitive processes.

The assumption that attitudes are formed on the basis of affective or emotional experiences is reflected in classical conditioning principles and the mere exposure hypothesis.

The idea that evaluations are based on behavioral responses is reflected in operant conditioning principles, self perception theory, and the facial feedback hypothesis.

Finally the claim that attitudes derides from a process of cognitive learning can be seen in a host of theories, including the theory of planned behavior and cognitive dissonance theory
a positive or negative evaluation of an object

prior to the 90s, attitudes were often defined in terms of 3 distinct components: cognitive, affective , and behavioral. according to this multidimensional, or try component view, attitudes are made up of 5 beliefs about object, our feelings about the object, or our behavior towards the object.

Research indicates that not all 3 of these components need be in place for an attitude to access. Example, you could develop a positive attitude toward a product you see on television without developing any beliefs about it or ever engaging in any behavior relevant to the product. Simply by repeatedly been exposed to the product, you can develop a positive attitude toward it.

Because the 3 aspects of the tri-component definition are not always present in an attitude, many social psychologists have moved to a unidimensional or single component definition in which evaluation is central. Here added to is simply defined as a positive or negative evaluation of an object.

Objects include people, things, events and issues. When people use words like like dislike love-hate good and bad they are usually describing their attitudes

social psychologist also use specialized terms to describe certain classes of attitudes. Example, an attitude toward the self is called self-esteem, certain attitudes towards group referred to as prejudice, and attitudes towards individuals are referred to as interpersonal attraction, friendship, and love

the movement away from the tri-component attitude definitions doesn't mean that social psychologists no longer consider the beliefs, feelings, and behaviors important in explaining attitudes. Instead these 3 sources of evaluative judgment-beliefs, feelings, and past behaviors are thought of as determining attitudes singly or in combination

As attitude holders, we appear to be automatic evaluators. Brain imaging studies suggest that when encountering people, things, and events, amygdala in the brain's limbic system engages in an immediate primitive good back emotional assessment and may be followed by higher order processing in the cerebral cortex. greater amygdala activity occurs for initial negative assessments then for positive much of this evaluative processing being unconscious.

it's the job of the cerebral cortex to analyze and interpret this initial emotional assessment into the subjective experience of various emotions which often leads to consciously held positive or negative attitudes this does not mean that we all placed equal importance on the evualitive process; we differ in our need to evaluate
implicit attitude
implicit attitude is a product of implicit cognition. Implicit attitude is an attitude that is activated automatically from memory often without the person's awareness that he or she even possess it.

Example, feeling uneasy and irritable around a new acquaintance because they remind you unconsciously as someone from your past.

Implicit attitudes are simple gut-level evaluations

whether they are positive for negative depends on whether the association activated in memory are pleasant or unpleasant

implicit attitudes can be measured by attending to nonverbal responses and physiological arousal, the most popular technique employed by researchers is the implicit Association test IAT
explicit attitude
explicit attitude is consciously held, it is a much more thoughtful and deliberate evaluation

if you consider the tricomponent view of attitudes, implicit attitudes are simply produced by the affective component, explicit attitudes are typically a joint product of affective, cognitive, and behavioral components.
Dual attitudes
the idea that you can have 2 attitudes toward someone or something, one explicit and the other implicit raises an intriguing question.

What happens when a person's explicit and implicit attitudes are evaluatively opposites?

the simultaneous possession of contradictory imprisoned and explicit attitudes towards the same object is known as dual attitudes this can develop simultaneously due to different situational factors.

researchers suggest that dual attitudes will most likely developed for issues that are socially sensitive, such as people's attitudes towards pornography, racial and ethnic groups, or their friends romantic partners
Implicit Association Test (IAT)
the IAT is the most popular technique employed by researchers. In assessing implicit attitudes, the IAT measures differences in memory associations between target categories and evaluative categories. This is accomplished by relying on a response latency indicator obtained by pairing target and evaluative categories. If a person repeatedly responds to one of these pairing faster then to the other pairing, this is interpreted as indicating that the person has a stronger tendency to automatically associate the category with positive evaluations
reference group
a group to which people orient themselves, using its standards to judge themselves and to the world

an important defining characteristic of a reference group is that people have an emotional attachment to it and refer to wait for guidance, even if they are not actual members.

Reference groups can be large and inclusive suggest an entire nation or religion but can also be small such as one's family or friends.

One of the 1st and best studies investigating reference groups influence on attitudes was the research of Theodore Newcomb in the 1930s documenting college students shift from social and political conservatism when they entered college to liberalism when they graduated. Newcomb's research began in 1934 when he was hired at Bennington College for women in Vermont.
- most of the students came from conservative families but by the time they graduated a favorite liberalism due to contact with the liberal professors at the college
functional approach to attitudes
attitude very into sizing that people develop and change attitudes based on them satisfying different psychological needs.

People hold attitudes that fit their current psychological needs and Windows need changes so will their attitudes.

From this perspective, people could have similar attitudes toward an object, but for different reasons.

the notion that people hold attitudes for different reasons has been an important contribution to understanding the nature of attitudes and how they develop and change. According to the functional perspective, a key factor in changing other people's attitude is 1st determining what functions those attitudes serve for the targeted individual.
4 Psychological functions of attitudes/ Daniel Katz and M. Brewster Smith
type of attitude: utilitarian
function served by attitude: helps the person to achieve rewards and gain approval from others
psychological perspective: behaviorist

type of attitude: knowledge
function served by attitude: helps the person to structure the world so that it makes sense
psychological perspective: cognitive

type of attitude: Eagle defense
function served by attitude: helps person protect himself from acknowledging basic self truths
psychological perspective: psychoanalytic/Freud

type of attitude: value-expression
function served by attitude: help person express important aspects of the self-concept
psychological perspective: humanistic
Mere Exposure Effect
mere exposure can lead to positive attitudes

Robert Zajonc argued that the tendency to develop more positive feelings towards objects and individuals the more we are exposed to them

simply exposing people repeatedly to a particular object such as a person causes them to develop a more positive attitude toward the object. This phenomenon, known as the mere exposure effect, does not require any action toward the object nor does it required the development of any police about the object.

although there are some limitations and qualifications to repeated exposure more than 200 experiments confirmed that the mere exposure effect leads to greater liking

-the significance of the mere exposure effect regarding our understanding of attitudes is that it illustrates how affect can become associated with an object independent of any knowledge about it. -These feeling-based attitudes develop outside the realm of their rational thoughts and represents a very basic and powerful form of evaluation.
-Many attitudes develop by mere exposure are implicit attitudes; they come into existence without the attitude holders awareness and are automatically activated from memory.
classical conditioning
learning through Association, when a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) is paired with a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) and naturally produces an emotional response

attitudes can form through classical conditioning

through classical conditioning a previously neutral attitude can come to evoke in attitude response simply by being paired with some others object that naturally evokes the attitude response

Arthur and Carolyn Staats were 2 of the 1st researchers to investigate the classical conditioning of attitudes
subliminal conditioning
classical conditioning that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness of the stimuli involved

example, pleasant and unpleasant photos presented so quickly to students that they did not consciously perceive them however despite not consciously perceiving these photos they did affect the students later attitudes towards the stranger
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is straightened if followed by reinforcement and weekend default by punishment

one of the most powerful ways in which the behavioral component can shape attitudes is through operant conditioning a form of learning extensively studied by behaviorist such as Thorndike and Skinner

Although attitudes can develop by being directly rewarded and punished when interacting with the attitude object they can also develop through the indirect means of observational learning Bandura.

In forming attitudes through observational learning, people whom we observe and imitate are called role models because they teach us how to play special roles. people in our reference groups are often role models for us. observational learning can also foster positive attitudes towards unhealthy behaviors such as smoking.
Festinger's Boring Task study
Volunteers in an experiment upon arriving were asked to perform to 30 min. task. The 1st task consists of emptying and refilling a tray with spHels and the 2nd consists of repeatedly turning 48 when takes on the board. When your hour of boredom ends the experimenter tells you the real purpose of the study is to determine the person's performance is influenced by whether he is told before hand that it will be very enjoyable and fun or like yourself told nothing.

He then tells you that his assistant has not shown up and will not be able to help them with the next participant who will be in the favorable information condition. He asked you if you would tell the participant that you had just completed the task-a true statement-and you found it to be extremely enjoyable-a LIE.

You agreeTo become the assistant and tell your lie to the waiting participant. When the participant completes the task and the parts, the experimenter since you to office where an interviewer ask how fun and interesting you found the task to be.

this is the scenario of the classic cognitive dissonance experiment conducted by Festinger and Carlsmith.

participants who for $1 told others who were actually Confederates that the task was very enjoyable and find came to believe that it was enjoyable to a far greater degree than those who said so for $20. The $1 liars also expressed greater enthusiasm for the task than a control group who were not asked to lie. researchers predicted that participants who were given insufficient monetary justification for lying (the $1 liars) would experience greater cognitive dissonance and would express more liking for the dull task than those who receive sufficient monetary justification (the $20 liars)

Cognitive dissonance theory states that if you simultaneously hold 2 cognitions that are inconsistent you will experience a feeling of discomfort known as cognitive dissonance. People are naturally motivated to reduce or eliminate the dissonance

in the study only 2 dissonance-reducing outlets were available to the liars:
1. they could add a 3rd cognition to make their attitude-behavior inconsistency less inconsistent or
2. they could change their attitude about the task

the reason the $1 participants showed more attitude change toward the boring task was that they experience a greater amount of cognitive dissonance

the $20 participants would not need to change their attitudes because they could justify their actions, reducing dissonance by adding a 3rd cognition that makes the original cognition less inconsistent: their high payment was sufficient justification for their counterattitudinal behavior. thus they had a reasonable justification for lying

the same cannot be said for the $1 participants because they were only given $1 for their like. This amount of payment provided insufficient justification for their counterattitudinal behavior

according to Festinger, when people engage in a counter attitudinal behavior without receiving a sufficient reward, they should experience cognitive dissonance. faced with this dissonance the $1 group strove to reduce the negative drive state. they cannot deny that they lied so instead they changed their attitude about the task: it was not boring at all
6 ways to reduce conflict of dissonance
1. Changing attitude
2. Adding cognition
3. Altering the importance of the discrepancy
4. Reducing perceived choice
5. Making self affirmations
6. Change behavior so it no longer conflicts with attitudes
Changing attitude
Changing attitude to reduce dissonance: can simply change attitude to make them consistent with discrepant attitude or prior behaviors
Adding cognition
Adding cognition: if 2 discrepant thoughts cost dissidents, people can add more consonant not. Such as getting drunk relaxes me makes me happy which is good for my mental health
Altering the importance of the discrepancy
Altering the importance of the discrepancy: can alter the importance of these discrepant thoughts or actions such as saying it's more important to be relaxed and fit in then to worry about the effects of alcohol
Reducing perceived choice
Reducing perceived choice: can convince themselves that they are not freely choosing to engage in the discrepant behavior such as I have no choice
Making self affirmations
Making self affirmations: can remind themselves of cherish aspects of their self-concept that are unrelated to the current dissonance, thus restoring their feelings of overall integrity such as I have so many other positive qualities in my life it's okay if I fallin short in this area
Freedom of choice and dissonance
another factor that creates cognitive dissonance is freely choosing to engage in a counterattitudinal behavior
-due to lack of choice, a person is unlikely to fill responsible for his actions and therefore will not experience cognitive dissonance
- to experience dissonance, people must feel that they freely choose to behave in a counterattitude no matter
justification of effort and dissonance
dissonance theory argue that when people have a bad experience with some group they freely joined there is a natural tendency to transform the bad experience into good to reduce cognitive dissonance. In addition, the greater the sacrifice or hardship associated with the choice, the greater the level of dissonance people experience

example fraternities
severity of initiation/ Elliott Aronson and Judson Mills 1959
college women who volunteered to take part in a psychology of sex class
-prior to being admitted each woman except those in control condition was told would have to take in embarrassment test to assure researchers that she could talk frankly and freely about intimate topics the purpose was to make participants pay a different price to get into the group

according to dissonance theory women in the severe initiation group should experience a pair of dissonant thoughts, "I went through severe initiation to get into the group" and "the group discussions are dull and worthless."
-To reduce cognitive dissonance, these women altered one of these thoughts.
- They could not deny they willingly paid a high price to join the group or they could alter their group evaluation. Because of cognitive dissonance, they gave a significantly more positive evaluation of the discussions than those in the mild initiation or control group
postdecision dissonance and altered perceptions
making a decision often arouses cognitive dissonance. Whenever we must decide between attractive alternatives, the final choice is to some extent inconsistent with some of our beliefs.
-As soon as we commit ourselves to a particular course of action, the attractive aspects of the unchosen alternatives and the unattractive aspect of our choice are inconsistent with our decision.
-As the difficulty or importance of the decision increases, the amount of postdecision dissonance increases
- because of this we often try to reduce dissonance by altering our perceptions of the choice we had entertained prior to making our final choice. We do this I improving our evaluation of the chosen alternative and knowing our evaluation of the unchosen
cognitive consistency is not a universal motive
Festinger's jury he assumed that everyone has an equal desire to engage in cognitively consistent actions. However cross-cultural research found that this desire is more descriptive of individualists poachers. based on this many cross-cultural researchers argue the need for consistency is based on the premise that the person is an independent entity on affected by the social context

those with high preference for consistency are more likely to experience cognitive dissonance

when we consider the universality of the cognitive dissonance modus, 2 factors can do rail expected cognitive dissonance effects when otherwise they should be aroused: a person's cultural upbringing may make attitude descriptive behavior inappropriate and value option and it persons understanding psychological needs may reduce the aversive nest of attitude discrepant acts
collectivists cultures
people in collectivist cultures are socialized to develop interdependence solves, which are defined in relation to others and tests tend to be more flexible.

This more flexible conception of the self encourages people from collectivist cultures to think in more holistic ways than individualist, making them more comfortable with contradictions and inconsistencies
cognitive consistency (fertile theory)
it should be noted that cognitive dissonance theory is an excellent example of a fertile theory that continues to generate novel ways of understanding attitudes. We now know that Cognitive dissonance does not always result when we act in a counterattitudinal manner.

whether dissonance is aroused depends not only on how central the need for cognitive consistency is for our thinking but also on whether the attitude-behavior discrepancy is important to the Self and is substantial
self perception theory / Bem
influence by Skinner's behaviorist perspective.

the theory that we often infer our internal states, such as our attitudes, by observing our behavior

the 1st serious challenge to cognitive dissonance

explanation of development of attitudes downplays the importance of introspection and self awareness in the process. argues we do not know what our attitudes are and instead inferred them from our behavior and the situation in which the behavior occurs.
self perception theory
A radical explanation of the attitude concept because it contends that instead of attitudes causing behavior, it's behavior that causes attitudes.
-that we are more likely to make attitude inferences when our behavior is freely chosen

in self perception theory, when we act in ways that are only slightly out of flying with our attitudes, we may experience no dissonance, and simply change your attitudes I'm making inferences from our behavior. research success this self perception process is more likely to operate when we have little prior experience with an attitude object or our attitudes our vaguely defined

this theory may also provide an explanation for how implicit attitudes become explicit attitudes
theory of planned behavior
the theory that people's decision to engage in specific actions are determined by their attitudes towards the behavior, the relevant subjective norms, and their perceived behavioral control.

The theory hypothesized that the most immediate cause of behavior is not added to, could rather, behavioral intentions. According to this theory your attitude towards a behavior the subjective norm and your perceived behavioral control leads to your intention which leads to your behavior
subjective norms
subjective norms are shaped like perceived expectation is significant others and the person's motivation to conform to those expectation
unintentional behavior
by placing intention after attitudes and the for behavior, the theory of planned behavior ignores the possibility that attitudes sometimes results in impulsive, unintentional behavior.
Attitude accessibility
often impulsive actions are triggered by attitudes are highly accessible in memory.

Added to accessibility refers to the strength of the association between an object and in a valuation of it, which is typically measured by the speed with which people can access the evaluation from memory the more readily information is activated in memory, the greater impact it will have on subsequent behavior. Further the more accessible attitudes can be spontaneously and automatically activated, triggering actions that are unplanned
another class of behavior that planned behavior model cannot explain is well established habits.

in Habits there's no assessment of attitudes and norms prior to behaving. There's no real planning or conscious intention. Instead the behavior is performed in a relatively unthinking fashion with little self-regulation.

Habits shape many different kinds of behavior including donating blood, attending college, voting, political party. under these circumstances is relatively mindless behavior amidst the likelihood that we will act deliberately
persuasion is the process of consciously attempting to change attitudes through the transmission of some message

psychologists interested in understanding persuasion began during world war 2 the assumption in social cognitive approach is that the thoughts that people generate in response to a message is believed to be the end result of information processing activity

persuasion can occur through both effortful and effortless thinking
elaboration likelihood model
a theory that persuasive message can cause attitude change into bays, each differing in the amount of cognitive effort of deliberation and requires

the most influential theory in the past 25 years. This assumes that people want to be correct in their attitudes. The term elaboration likelihood refers to the probability that the target of the persuasive message will elaborate ( carefully analyze an attempt to comprehend) information contained in the message. People will either engage in high or low collaboration when attending to and processing persuasive messages
central route to persuasion ( critical thinking)
persuasion that occurs when people think carefully about a communication and are influenced by the strength of its argument. If collaboration of message yields were thoughts consistent with the message arguments we are more likely to be persuaded, but no attitude change occurs
peripheral route to persuasion (appealing to emotion)
in peripheral route, we pay attention to cues that are irrelevant to the content or quality of the communication
- no elaboration, such as attractiveness of the communicator with the sheer amount of information presented.
- By attending to these cues we evaluate a message without extensively taken about the actual issues under consideration.
-It is not necessary for a person to take peripheral route to comprehend the content of the message: attitude change can occur without comprehension
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Self-fulfilling prophecy:
the expectations you form for someone else and how you treat them, base on how you treat them, they will perceive that, interpret that, and react in kind and therefore confirm your false belief. Creating your own reality.
Social desirability
pressures on survey respondents to answer as they think they should respond in accordance with what is most socially acceptable, and not in accordance with what they actually believe.
the " I '
2 component to the Self:

The "I" is actively perceiving, thinking, and behaving. Its you just responding to your world.

-The "I" HAS the ABILITY to FOCUS ON the "ME."

-The ability to bring yourself into focus is reffered to as self-awareness
the " ME "
2 component to the Self:

The "ME," are THOUGHTS & FEELINGS that DEFINES who you are. Self-concept.

-Different for every single person.
-Evolves from social interactions, starts from childhood and changes over time.
-How you define yourself now may be different in 10 or so years.
Ingratiation: shaped through flattery, people will tend to like us better, for individuals who do this, have better pay increases.
-Drawback is that negative affects on bystanders.
Modesty: under-representing your positive traits, contributions, or accomplishments
-Used more by females, to be successful, must make sure they know your accomplishment and actually knows how smart you are
-but if you downplay your accomplishments and they don't know how smart you are, they don't know
Self-promotion: telling about ones positive assets and
-Used more by males
-Most don't like it, tend to see as braggers
-Does this shape peoples opinion, if goals to get people to think you're competent? YES
-To effectively use this, its Best to also indicate some minor flaws makes you more human
Exemplification: integrate and moral worthiness
-often used by politicians
-creates very strong loyalty and cohesion
-drawback is that it can cause guilt in other and people would dislike you
-someone found to be hypocritical, would be judge more severely