How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

66 terms

A&P Chapter 2 Chemistry

Test 2`
STUDY
PLAY
element
substance made of only one type of atom
atom
smallest part of an element
proton
positive charge, in nucleus
neutron
neutral charge, in nucleus
electron
negative charge, in shell around the nucleus
atomic #
# of protons in nucleus
atomic weight
# of protons and neutrons in nucleus
ionic bond
electron leaves one atom for another atom
covalent bond
2 atoms share electrons
synthesis reaction
bonds join 2 or more atoms/ molecules to make new compound
decomposition reaction
bonds are broken changing larger molecule to 2 or more smaller molecules
water
60% - 75% of the body
water - dissolves
solvent
water - prevents friction
lubricant
water - has a high heat capacity
changes temperature slowly
water compartments
ICF, ECF, plasma, lymph, interstitial, specialized fluids
ICF
intracellular fluid
intracellular fluid
water in cells 65% total body water
ECF
extracellular fluid
extracellular fluid
other 35% of water in plasma, lymph, interstitial and specialized
plasma
ECF, water in blood
lymph
ECF, water that has separated from blood
interstitial
ECF, tissue fluid in small spaces between cells
synovial fluid
specialized ECF in joints
cerebralspinal fluid
specialized ECF around brain and spine
aqueous humor
specialized ECF in the eye
21%
oxygen % of atmosphere?
cell respiration
uses oxygen to break down simple nutrients to release energy and create ATP
ATP
adenosine triphosphate, trapped energy for later use, all cell processes
glucose is broken down to
carbon dioxide, water, ATP and heat
hypoxemia
not enough energy in blood, leads to hypoxia
hypoxia
lack of oxygen in tissue, result of hypoxemia
acid
below 7 on pH scale, donates/ increases H ions
base
above 7 on pH scale, decreases H ions
body pH
7.35-7.45
buffer system
neutralizes strong base or acid
hydrogen
H
carbon
C
nitrogen
N
oxygen
O
fluorine
F
sodium
Na
magnesium
Mg
Phosphorus
P
Sulfur
S
chlorine
Cl
potassium
K
calcium
Ca
manganese
Mn
iron
Fe
cobalt
Co
copper
Cu
zinc
Zn
iodine
I
carbohydrates
CHO, monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (cane sugar), polysaccharides (starches), cellulose (fiber)
parastalsis
result of cellulose intake, contraction of muscles from the esophagus through the colon
Lipids
CHO fats
triglyceride
1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids
saturated fat
solid @room temp, bacon fat
unsaturated fat
liquid @room temp, canola oil
trans fats
hydrogenated fats, leads to atherosclerosis
atherosclerosis
cholesterol deposits in lining of arteries
proteins
CHON, made of amino acids
enzymes
proteins that are catalysts, end in -ase
DNA
genetic code
RNA
copies 1/2 DNA molecule to direct protein synthesis