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34 terms

Citizenship and Early America

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Civics
The study of the rights and duties of citizens
Citizenship Rights
the rights guaranteed to each law abiding citizen in a nation state
Duty
A moral or legal obligation; a responsibility
Democracy
A government controlled by its citizens, either directly or through representatives.
Direct Democracy
Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly.
Representative Democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Constitutional Monarchy
A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.
Authoritarian
A style of government characterized by submission to authority. It tends to opposed individualism and democracy. In its most extreme cases it is one in which political power is concentrated in a leader or leaders, who possess exclusive, unaccountable, and arbitrary power.
Dictatorship
A government controlled by one person or a small group of people
Totalitarian
A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
Absolute Monarchy
Rule by a king or queen whose power is not limited by a constitution
Naturalization
A legal process to obtain citizenship
Illegal Alien
A person who comes into the United States without a legal permit, such as a passport, visa, or entry permit.
Legal Alien
Non-citizen who is officially permitted to live in the US
Values
The ideas, beliefs, and attitudes about what is important, that help guide the way you live
Institution
An organization founded for a religious, education, social or similar purpose
Limited Government
A government that has been limited in power by a constitution, or written agreement
Unlimited Government
A government structure in which there are no effective limits on government actions
Magna Carta
1215 English document that limited the king's power and that guaranteed due process and a right to trial
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a democratic government for the Plymouth colony.
Iroquois Confederation
Political union of 5 independent tribes who lives in the Mohawk valley of New York
Mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Stamp Act
1765; British law that taxed printed goods in the Colonies, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Declaratory Act
Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
Continental Congress
The legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Intolerable Acts
A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British
Taxation Without Representation
During the American Revolution, citizens in colonies were taxed but not allowed to vote in Parliament.
Popular Sovereignty
A government in which the people rule by their own consent.
Liberty
Freedom
Pursuit of Happiness
People should be free to do what brings them pleasure, joy, or satisfaction without interference or intrusion.
Revolutionaries
Colonists who led, joined, or supported the revolution.
Loyalists
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)