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a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act on their behalf


(2)Conducted a census of citizens and property for taxes during an eighteen-month term. Appointed, disciplined, and expelled senators as needed.


(2)Convened and presided over the Senate and Assemblies. This office carried the greatest imperium or the right to preside over the army, carry out the law, and pass death sentences.


(8)Assumed the responsibilities of the consuls if they were absent from Rome. Acted as judges in a court of law or could appoint judges.


(4) Managed public games, buildings, religious festivals, and grain for the city. 2 aediles had to be plebeians.


(10) Protected the rights of the plebeians and were sacrosanct. Could veto any act of any magistrate in the name of protection.


(20) Supervised the treasury, helped with taxes, acted as paymasters for generals, or were assistants to govenors


Common people


Wealthy class; comes from 'patres' which means fathers.

Conflict of Orders

Plebs vs. Patricians; Plebs wanted representation and rights in the government; Office of tribune came out of this.


Pietas: dutifulness for one's country in times of need.


Virtus: manly courage, bravery, and strength for the gloria of Rome

Junius Brutus

Aequitas: fairness in when dealing with people and the laws of the government

Horatius Cocles

Salus: putting the safety of others as a priority.

Mucius Scaevola

Severitas: strength of mind, the ability to stick to one's purpose despite the consequences.


Led Rome in times of crisis for a six-month term. This position was the only one that could not be vetoed by another office or assembly.


Consisted of 600 magistrates or so in an "advisory capacity." Met at the Curia


Every political position had at least 2 officers to avoid one man having ultimate power

Sella Curulis

The chair the two patrician aediles, consuls, praetors, and censors could sit on during senate meetings. Represented their imperium.


Bodyguard for magistrates with imperium (consuls, praetors, and censors). From Latin verb ligare = to bind.


Only consuls and praetors could become proconsuls or propraetors. This meant that they governed a Roman province when they finished their term.

Political Term

All terms were one year long except for censors who had an 18 month term

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