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Patient Assessment Quiz 3 Part 2 Chapter 4
Quiz 3 Part 2 Chapter 4
Terms in this set (16)
Blood Pressure (BP):
The measurment of the pressure/force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries.
The phase in the cardiac cycle which the force of the contraction is exerted against the walls of the arteries and is the HIGHEST point of pressure in the body.
-the TOP number
The phase in the cardiac cycle in which the heart RELAXES between contractions.
-the BOTTOM number
How is BP measured?
mmHg (millimeters of mercury)
Classification of BP:
- 120/80 or less is NORMAL
- 120-139/80-89 is PRE-HYPERTENSION
- 140-160 or higher/90-100 or higher is HYPERTENSION
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure):
Results from excessive pressure on the arterial walls.
Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure):
Results from reduced pressure on the arterial walls.
What are factors that affect BP?
2. Gender (usually women before puberty)
3. Diurnal Variations
4. Emotional States (anger, fear, excitement)
6. Body Position
8. Other Factors (pain, eating,caffeine, smoking, if you have to urinate)
What equipment do you use to measure BP?
3. Automated Oscillometric B/P Device
Name the parts to the stethoscope:
4. Chest piece
-Diaphragm (large flat disc)
Name the parts to the sphygmomanometer (SP):
2. Inflatable bladder surrounded by cuff covering
3. Pressure bulb
4. Control valve
What are the 2 types of sphygmomanometer?
1. Aneroid - lightweight and portable, round scale gauge
2. Mercury - vertical tube scale
-more accurate than aneroid
Proper BP cuff size:
- Long enough to encircle 80% of the circumference of the arm (white markings)
- Wide enough to cover 2/3 of the distance from the axilla to the antecubital space
Tapping sounds heard as blood comes rushing back through the artery when pressure is released.
- Phase I: first tapping sound (systolic)
- Phase II: as cuff deflates, sound have a murmuring/swishing quality
- Phase III: sounds become crisper and increase in intesity
- Phase IV: Sounds become muffled and have a soft, blowing quality
- Phase V: last tapping sound (diastolic)
What are some ways to prevent errors in BP?
1. Instruct Pt. - No caffeine, tobacco or exercise
2. Pt. should be seated comfortably in proper position
3. Use proper size cuff
4. Never take reading over clothes
5. Avoid extraneous sounds
6. Center cuff over brachial artery to compress completely
7. Apply equal pressure to brachial artery; cuff should be snug and smooth
8. Instruct Pt. to relax and remain quiet
9. Position earpiece forward so you can hear clearly
10. Avoid extraneous sounds from tubing
11. Position the chest piece over brachial artery
12. Release pressure at a steady rate
13. Avoid venous congestion by waiting 1-2 min to retake the BP
14. Measure and record the BP in both arms during the INITIAL visit of new Pt.
Know all Positions:
2. Supine (lying down)
3. Dorsal Recumbant (lying down w/ knees bent)
4. Lithotomy (lying down w/ legs in stirrups)
5. Trendelburg (lying down w/ legs bent downward)
6. Semi-Fowler's (lying down w/ bed elevated)
7. Prone (lying straight on stomach)
8. Sims (lying on side w/ one knee slightly bent)
9. Knee-Chest (head on pillow w/ butt in the air)
10. Jack-Knife/Proctologic (on stomach, legs and head bent downward)
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