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AP Human Geography Unit 3
Terms in this set (90)
What are Ravenstein's laws for the distance that migrants typically move?
most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country, long distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity
What 2 categories can migration be divided into?
international and inernal
What are 2 types of international migration?
voluntary and forced
What are 2 types of internal migration?
interregional and intratregional
What percent of the world's people are international migrants?
What do global patterns reflect?
migration tendencies from developing countries to developed countries
What is net out-migration?
number of emigrants exceeds the number of immigrants
What are some examples of places with net out-migration?
Asia, Latin America, and Africa
What is net in-migration?
number of immigrants exceeds the number of emigrants
What are some examples of places with net in-migration?
North America, Europe, and Oceania
What are the 3 main eras of immigration in the US?
colonial settlement in the 17th and 18th centuries, mass European immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Asian and Latin American integration in the late 20th and early 21st century
What were the principle sources of immigrants during the 3 main eras of US immigration?
Asia, Latin America, Africa, Europe
Describe role of physical geography in examining intervening obstacles and migration.
oceans, mountains, deserts are environmental obstacles that can keep people from migrating
Describe role of transportation in examining intervening obstacles and migration.
people can now migrate by car, train, or airplane, not just by horse or on foot
Describe role of political concerns/laws in examining intervening obstacles and migration.
a migrant needs a passport to legally emigrate from a country and a visa to legally immigrate to a new country
What types of push factors are usually responsible for voluntary migration?
What types of push factors are usually responsible for forced migration (refugees)?
What would one expect to occur in terms of migration in stage 1?
high daily or seasonal mobility in search for food, no permanent settlement
What would one expect to occur in terms of migration in stage 2?
people migrating from rural areas to cities in same country or another country
What would one expect to occur in terms of migration in stage 3 and 4?
people searching for economic opportunities, mostly intraregional migration from cities to suburbs
What are gender characteristics in the past and present trends?
past- males more likely than females because jobs were main reason for international migration; present- change of role of women in Mexican society- joining husbands or brothers already in the US or seeking jobs
What are the family status characteristics in the past and recent changes?
past and still today- mostly young adults looking for work, not very many elderly people, some kids; recent changes- more children are coming with their mothers
What is the history of interregional migration in the US?
enticement of abundant available land on the American Frontier
What is interregional migration like presently in the US?
most jobs, especially in services, are clustered in urban areas
What is the "center of population gravity"?
mean place of population determind by census, westward expansion contributed to a shift in the center of population
Describe interregional migration in Russia.
interregional migration was encouraged eastward and northward by the government's decision to locate new factories and to offer economic incentives away from existing population concentrations
Describe interregional migration in Canada.
shares a similar east to west interregional migration pattern with the US
Describe interregional migration in China.
nearly 100 million people have emigrated from rural interior to large urban areas along coast
Describe interregional migration in Brazil.
government moved its capital from Rio De Janeiro to Brasilia (600 inland) to encourage migration of Atlantic coast residents to move to the interior
How is intraregional migration in developing countries different from developed countries?
developed- moving to suburbs, developing- moving to cities
What motivates intraregional migration in developing countries?
desired lifestyle- additional privacy associated with single-family detached houses, garages and driveways offer parking at no additional fees, often superior suburban schools
What motivates intraregional migration in developed countries?
In what places is counterurbanization most prevalent?
places rich with natural amenities- Rocky Mountain states (Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming)
The world's third most populous country (the US) is inhabited overwhelmingly by...
direct descendants of immigrants
In what stage of the demographic transition are most countries that send out immigrants?
What are the 3 countries that sent out the most immigrants from Asia in recent years?
China, India, and the Philippines
What caused immigration from Latin America to the US to increase?
1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act
Although the reasons people leave their countries to immigrate to the US have not changed over time, what has changed here in the US?
no longer a sparsely settled, not much unclaimed land left, US not in economic boom now
What were some of the causes of European immigration to the US?
decline in CDR, population increase, limited economic advancement
What were some of the important effects of European immigration to the US and other world regions?
Europeans brought their cultural, heritage, language, religion, art, music, literature, philosophy, ethics, traditions, political structures, and economic systems diffused into other regions
Where do most undocumented immigrants in the US come from?
What 3 states do most immigrants go to?
California, Texas, Florida
Where did the immigrants that came to California come from?
Mexico, China, India, Philippines, Vietnam
Where did the immigrants that came to Texas come from?
Where did the immigrants that came to Florida come from?
Colombia, Cuba, Haiti
Where did the immigrants that came to New York come from?
China, Dominican Republic
People decide to migrate because of a combination of what 2 factors?
push and pull factors
What are the 3 major types of push and pull factors?
political, environmental, economic
What is an example of political push and pull factors?
push- persecuting a religion, pull- giving welfare to immigrants
What is an example of environmental push and pull factors?
push- water (flood, drought), pull- mountains, seasides, warm climates
What is an example of economic push and pull factors?
push- migrate away from places with few jobs, pull- migrate to places where jobs seem to be available
What are the 3 groups of forced political migrants?
a refugee, an internally displaced person (IDP), asylum seeker
Where have most immigrants of US and Canada come from in the past?
Where do most immigrants of the US and Canada come from more recently?
Latin America and Asia
What 2 types can intervening obstacles be categorized into?
environmental feature- mountain, ocean, or distance; political feature- countries require proper documentation to leave one country and gain entry in another
What are the types of immigrants that are given preference to enter the US?
family reunification, skilled workers, and people from countries that send few immigrants to US
What marked the end of unrestricted immigration of the US?
passing of the Quota Act in 1921 and the National Origins Act in 1924 by the US Congress
Describe the preference of family reunification.
about 3/4 of immigrants
Describe the preference of skilled workers.
approximately 1/4 of immigrants, sending countries alleged preference for skilled workers contributes to brain drain
Describe the population characteristics of unauthorized immigrants in the US- source country.
roughly 58% emigrate from Mexico
Describe the population characteristics of unauthorized immigrants in the US- children.
of estimated 11.2 million unauthorized immigrants, nearly 1 million are children
Describe the population characteristics of unauthorized immigrants in the US- years in the US.
duration of residency has increased for unauthorized immigrants
Describe the population characteristics of unauthorized immigrants in the US- labor force.
approximately 8 million unauthorized immigrants are employed in the US
Describe the population characteristics of unauthorized immigrants in the US- distribution.
Texas and California have largest number of unauthorized immigrants
What are motives that compel unauthorized immigrants to enter illegally?
employment opportunity, family reunification, better way of life
How do northern Mexicans view immigration?
wish for compassion to be shown to unauthorized immigrants
How do southern Mexicans view immigration?
less tolerant because of number of unauthorized immigrants entering Mexico from Guatemala
What did Ravenstein note about the characteristics of migrants?
most long-distance migrants are male, adult individuals rather than families with children, and are young adults seeking work rather than children and elderly people
When and how did gender reverse in immigration? What was most likely the cause of the gender reversal?
1990's, women constituted 55% of US immigrants, reflection of the changing role of women in the Mexican society
How does the education of US citizens and US immigrants compare?
immigrants to the US tend to be less educated than US citizens
What are most views of immigration by US citizens indecisive in nature about?
border patrol, workplace, civil rights, local initiatives
How is population growth in Europe fueled by immigration from other regions of the world?
biggest fear is that the host country's culture will be lost, because immigrants bring their own culture and beliefs- causes problems, hostility to immigrants has become a central plank of some political parties in many European countries
Why is inhospitable climate for immigrants in Europe especially ironic?
Europe was the source of most of the world's emigrants, during the 19th century most Europeans fear losing their cultural heritage to that of new immigrants, while: Indo-European languages, Christianity, European art, music
What did the Quota Act (1921) and the national Origins Act (1924) do?
established quotas, or maximum limits on the number of people who could immigrate to the US from each country during a one-year period
How did the quotas favor immigration from certain regions?
favored European immigrants over Asians
How did the Immigration Act of 1965 change the existing quota laws?
quotas for individual countries eliminated in 1968 and replaced with hemisphere quotas
How was immigration law further changed in 1978? And presently?
hemisphere quotas replaced with global quota of 290,000, including maximum 20,000 per country; global quota of 620,000, no more than 7% from one country
What are the groups the US Immigration Law gives preference to?
families, skilled workers, people who have historically sent few people over
Compare and contrast US attitude toward immigrants and European attitudes toward guest workers.
US attitudes- immigrants are inferior, incline to crime, and resist assimilation, okay with immigration to settle in frontier in 19th century; European attitudes- acknowledge guest workers as temporary, need is filled by guest workers starting businesses that are open when local businesses are closed; both- political programs to restrict immigration, hostility in host country
What is the most famous example of large-scale interregional migration in the US?
internal migration to American West
What is the "population center"?
average location of everyone in the country
What was the first "intervening obstacle" which hindered American settlement of the interior of the continent?
What developments in transportation eventually encouraged settlement to the Mississippi?
building of canals
Why was settlement of the Great Plains slow to come with settlers passing it by for California and the west coast?
settlers moving to California for Gold Rush and Great Plains seen as unfit for farming because of dry climate and rough sod
How did the railroads encourage settlement of the American interior?
land was sold to farmers to finance railroads and the farmer's product was transported by rail to eastern customers
For what 2 reasons have people been migrating to the South in recent years?
job opportunities and environmental conditions
Did the 4 regions of the US (West, Midwest, Northeast, South) have a net growth or loss in 2007?
West- loss, Midwest- loss, Northwest- loss, South- gain
What is urbanization?
migration from rural areas to metropolitan areas (cities)
What is suburbanization?
movement from cities to suburbs (areas surrounding cities)
What is counterurbanization?
net migration from urban areas back to rural areas
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