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Unit 4: Immigration & Industrialization

Terms in this set (145)

▢ Some of these immigrants sought to escape difficult conditions—such as famine, land shortages, or religious or political persecution.
▢ Others, known as "birds of passage,"intended to immigrate temporarily to earn money, and then return to their homelands.
OLD IMMIGRANTS::* Before 1890, most immigrants came from countries in western and northern Europe.
NEW IMMIGRANTS::*Beginning in the 1890s, however, increasing numbers came from southern and eastern Europe.
-In 1907 alone, about a million people arrived from Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. NOT IRELAND
▢ religious persecution (Jew were driven out of Russia by pogroms, organized attacks often encouraged by local authorities)
▢ Other Europeans left because of rising population. Between 1800 and 1900, the population in Europe dou"bled to nearly 400 million, resulting in a scarcity of land for farming. Farmers competed with laborers for too few industrial jobs. In the United States, jobs were supposedly plentiful.
▢many young European men and women sought independent lives in America.
▢ While waves of Europeans arrived on the shores of the East Coast, Chinese immigrants came to the West Coast in smaller numbers.
-Between 1851 and 1883, about 300,000 Chinese arrived.
-Many came to seek their fortunes after the discovery of gold in 1848 sparked the California gold rush.
-Chinese immigrants helped build the nation's railroads, including the first transcontinental line.
-When the railroads were completed, they turned to farming, mining, and domestic service.
▢ The United States' annexation of Hawaii in 1898 resulted in increased Japanese immigration to the West Coast. Immigration continued to increase as word of comparatively high American wages spread. (By1920, more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the West Coast)
▢Between 1880 and 1920, about 260,000 immigrants arrived in the eastern and southeastern United States from the West Indies ( came from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islands)
-Many West Indians left their homelands because jobs were scarce and the industrial boom in the United States seemed to promise work for everyone.
▢Mexicans, too, immigrated to the United States to find work, as well as to flee political turmoil.
-The 1902 National Reclamation Act, which encouraged the irrigation of arid land, created new farmland in Western states and drew Mexican farm workers northward.
▢ Ellis Islandin New York Harbor: 20% of the immigrants at Ellis Island were detained for a day or more before being inspected (2% were denied entry)
The processing of immigrants on Ellis Island was an ordeal that might take five "
European governments used passports to control the number of professionals and young men of military age who left the country
-First, they had to pass a physical examination by a doctor. Anyone with a serious health problem or a contagious disease, such as tuberculosis, was promptly sent home.
-Those who passed the medical exam then reported to a government inspector. The inspector checked documents and questioned immigrants to determine whether they met the legal requirements for entering the United States. The requirements included proving they had never been convicted of a felony, demonstrating that they were able to work, and showing "that they had some money (at least $25 after 1909).
▢From 1892 to 1924, Ellis Island was the chief immigration station in the United States. An estimated 17 million immigrants passed through its noisy, bustling facilities.
▢While European immigrants arriving on the East Coast passed through Ellis Island, Asians—primarily Chinese—arriving on the West Coast gained admission at Angel Islandsland* in San Francisco Bay.
-Between 1910 and 1940, about 50,000 Chinese immigrants entered the United States through Angel Island.
-Processing: Immigrants endured harsh questioning and a long detention in filthy, ramshackle buildings while they waited to find out whether they would be admitted or rejected.
▢nativism: favoritism toward native-born Americans.
-gave rise to anti-immigrant groups and led to a demand for immigration restrictions.
-Many nativists believed that Anglo-Saxons—the Germanic ancestors of the English—were superior to other ethnic groups (identified desirable immigrants as "British, German, and Scandinavian stock, historically free, energetic, progressive.)
-Nativists thought that problems were caused by immigrants from the "wrong"countries—"Slav, Latin, and Asiatic races, historically down-trodden ... and stagnant."
▢ Nativists sometimes objected more to immigrants' religious beliefs than to their ethnic backgrounds. Many native-born Americans were Protestants and thought that Roman Catholic and Jewish immigrants would undermine the "democratic institutions established by the country's Protestant founders.
-The American Protective Association, a nativist group founded in 1887, launched vicious anti-Catholic attacks, and many colleges, businesses, and social clubs refused to admit Jews."
-In 1897, Congress—influenced by the Immigration Restriction League—passed a bill requiring a literacy test for immigrants. Those who could not read 40 words in English or their native language would be refused entry.
▢in the West, native-born workers feared that jobs would go to Chinese immigrants, who would accept lower wages.
-Work was scarce, and labor groups exerted political pressure on the government to restrict Asian immigration. The founder of the Workingmen's Party, Denis Kearney, headed the
anti-Chinese movement in California.
"Woman suffrage faced constant opposition. The liquor industry feared that women would vote in support of prohibition, while the textile industry worried that women would vote for restrictions on child labor. Many men simply feared the changing role of women in society.
A THREE-PART STRATEGY FOR SUFFRAGE Suffragist leaders tried three approaches to achieve their objective. First, they tried to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote. They achieved a victory in the territory of Wyoming in 1869, and by the 1890s Utah, Colorado, and Idaho had also granted voting rights to women. After 1896, efforts in other states failed.
Second, women pursued court cases to test the Fourteenth Amendment, which declared that states denying their male citizens the right to vote would lose congression-al representation. Weren't women citizens, too? In 1871 and 1872, Susan B. Anthony and other women tested that question by attempting to vote at least 150 times in ten states and the District of Columbia. The Supreme Court ruled in 1875 that women were indeed citizens—but then denied that citizenship automatically conferred the right to vote.
Third, women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the vote "tanton succeeded in having the amendment introduced in California, but it was killed later. For the next 41 years, women lobbied to have it reintroduced, only to see it continually voted down."
"Before the turn of the century, the campaign for suffrage achieved only modest success. Later, however, women's reform efforts paid off in improvements in the treatment of workers and in safer food and drug products—all of which President Theodore Roosevelt supported, along with his own plans for reforming business, labor, and the environment."
"President Theodore Roosevelt, like many other readers, was nauseated by Sinclair's account. The president invited the author to visit him at the White House, where Roosevelt promised that "the specific evils you point out shall, if their existence be proved, and if I have the power, be eradicated.""A Rough-Riding President
Theodore Roosevelt was not supposed to be president. In 1900, the young governor from New York was urged to run as McKinley's vice-president by the state's political bosses, who found Roosevelt impossible to control. The plot to nominate Roosevelt worked, taking him out of state office. However, as vice-president, Roosevelt stood a heartbeat away from becoming president. Indeed, President McKinley had served barely six months of his second term before he was assassinated, making Roosevelt the most powerful person in the government.
ROOSEVELT'S RISE Theodore Roosevelt was born into a wealthy New York family in 1858. An asthma sufferer during his childhood, young Teddy drove himself to accomplish demanding physical feats. As a teenager, he mastered marksmanship and horseback riding. At Harvard College, Roosevelt boxed and wrestled.
At an early age, the ambitious Roosevelt became a leader in New York politics. After serving three terms in the New York State Assembly, he became New York City's police commissioner and then assistant secretary of the U.S. Navy. The aspiring politician grabbed national attention, advocating war against Spain in 1898. His volunteer cavalry brigade, the Rough Riders, won public acclaim for its role "in the battle at San Juan Hill in Cuba. Roosevelt returned a hero and was soon elected governor of New York and then later won the vice-presidency.

When the president spared a bear cub on a hunting expedition, a toymaker marketed a popular new product, the teddy bear.
THE MODERN PRESIDENCY When Roosevelt was thrust into the presidency in 1901, he became the youngest president ever at 42 years old. Unlike previous presidents, Roosevelt soon dominated the news with his many exploits. While in office, Roosevelt enjoyed boxing, although one of his opponents blinded him in the left eye. On another day, he galloped 100 miles on horseback, merely to prove the feat possible.
In politics, as in sports, Roosevelt acted boldly, using his personality and pop-ularity to advance his programs. His leadership and publicity campaigns helped create the modern presidency, making him a model by which all future presidents would be measured. Citing federal responsibility for the national welfare, Roosevelt thought the government should assume control whenever states proved incapable of dealing with problems."He explained, "It is the duty of the president to act upon the theory that he is the steward of the people, and ... to assume that he has the legal right to do whatever the needs of the people demand, unless the Constitution or the laws explicitly forbid him to do it."
Roosevelt's concern for the land and its inhabitants was not matched in the area of civil rights. Though Roosevelt's father had supported the North, his mother, Martha, may well have been the model for the Southern belle Scarlet O'Hara in Margaret Mitchell's famous novel, Gone with the Wind. In almost two terms as president, Roosevelt—like most other progressives—failed to support civil rights for African Americans. He did, however, support a few individual African Americans.
Despite opposition from whites, Roosevelt appointed an African American as head of the Charleston, South Carolina, customhouse. In another instance, when some whites in Mississippi refused to accept the black postmistress he had appointed, he chose to close the station rather than give in. In 1906, however, Roosevelt angered many African Americans when he dismissed without question an entire regiment of African-American soldiers accused of conspiracy in protecting others charged with murder in Brownsville, Texas.
As a symbolic gesture, Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dinner at the White House. Washington—head of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, an all-black training school—was then the African-American leader most respected by powerful whites. Washington faced opposition "however, from other African Americans, such as W. E. B. Du Bois, for his accommodation of segregationists and for blaming black poverty on blacks and urging them to accept discrimination.
"Persistent in his criticism of Washington's ideas, Du Bois renewed his demands for immediate social and economic equality for African Americans. In his 1903 book The Souls of Black Folk, Du Bois wrote of his opposition to Washington's position."

Excerpt From: Danzer, de Alva, Krieger, Wilson, and Woloch. "The Americans Unit 05." iBooks.
Excerpt From: Danzer, de Alva, Krieger, Wilson, and Woloch. "The Americans Unit 05." iBooks.
Under Governor Woodrow Wilson's leadership, the previously conservative New Jersey legislature had passed a host of reform measures. Now, as the Democratic presidential nominee, Wilson endorsed a progressive platform called the New Freedom. It demanded even stronger antitrust legislation, banking reform, and reduced tariffs.
The split between Taft and Roosevelt, former Republican allies, "turned nasty during the fall campaign. Taft labeled Roosevelt a "dangerous egotist," while Roosevelt branded Taft a "fathead" with the brain of a "guinea pig." Wilson distanced himself, quietly gloating, "Don't interfere when your enemy is destroying himself."
The election offered voters several choices: Wilson's New Freedom, Taft's con-servatism, Roosevelt's progressivism, or the Socialist Party policies of Eugene V. Debs. Both Roosevelt and Wilson supported a stronger government role in economic affairs but differed over strategies. Roosevelt supported government action to supervise big business but did not oppose all business monopolies, while Debs called for an end to capitalism. Wilson supported small business and free-market competition and characterized all business monopolies as evil. In a speech, Wilson explained why he felt that all business monopolies were a threat. Although Wilson captured only 42 percent of the popular vote, he won an overwhelming electoral victory and a Democratic majority in Congress. As a third-party candidate, Roosevelt defeated Taft in both popular and electoral votes. But reform claimed the real victory, with more than 75 percent of the vote going to the reform candidates—Wilson, Roosevelt, and Debs. In victory, Wilson could claim a mandate to break up trusts and to expand the government's role in social reform."
"Despite Wilson's economic and political reforms, he disappointed Progressives who favored social reform. In particular, on racial matters Wilson appeased con-servative Southern Democratic voters but disappointed his Northern white and black supporters. He placed segregationists in charge of federal agencies, thereby expanding racial segregation in the federal government, the military, and Washington, D.C.
"WILSON AND CIVIL RIGHTS Like Roosevelt and Taft, Wilson retreated on civil rights once in office. During the presidential campaign of 1912, he won the support of the NAACP's black intellectuals and white liberals by promising to treat blacks equally and to speak out against lynching.
"As president, however, Wilson opposed federal antilynching legislation, arguing that these crimes fell under state jurisdiction. In addition, the Capitol and the federal offices in Washington, D.C., which had been desegregated during Recon-struction, resumed the practice of segregation shortly after Wilson's election.
Wilson appointed to his cabinet fellow white Southerners who extended seg-regation. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, for example, proposed at a cab-inet meeting to do away with common drinking fountains and towels in his department. According to an entry in Daniel's diary, President Wilson agreed because he had "made no promises in particular to negroes, except to do them justice." Segregated facilities, in the president's mind, were just"African Americans and their liberal white supporters in the NAACP felt betrayed. Oswald Garrison Villard, a grandson of the abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, wrote to Wilson in dismay, "The colored men who voted and worked for you in the belief that their status as American citizens was safe in your hands are deeply cast down." Wilson's response—that he had acted "in the interest of the negroes" and "with the approval of some of the most influential negroes I know"—only widened the rift between the president and some of his former supporters.
On November 12, 1914, the president's reception of an African-American del-egation brought the confrontation to a bitter climax. William Monroe Trotter, editor-in-chief of the Guardian, an African-American Boston newspaper, led the delegation. Trotter complained that African Americans from 38 states had asked the president to reverse the segregation of government employees, but that seg-rega "tion had since increased. Trotter then commented on Wilson's inaction. "Wilson found Trotter's tone infuriating. After an angry Trotter shook his fin-ger at the president to emphasize a point, the furious Wilson demanded that the delegation leave. Wilson's refusal to extend civil rights to African Americans pointed to the limits of progressivism under his administration. America's involvement in the war raging in Europe would soon reveal other weaknesses. "THE TWILIGHT OF PROGRESSIVISM After taking office in 1913, Wilson had said, "There's no chance of progress and reform in an administration in which war plays the principal part." Yet he found that the outbreak of World War I in Europe in 1914 demanded America's involvement. Meanwhile, distracted Americans and their legislators allowed reform efforts to stall. As the pacifist and reformer Jane Addams mournfully reflected, "The spirit of fighting burns away all those impulses ... which foster the will to justice."
International conflict was destined to be part of Wilson's presidency. During the early years of his administration, Wilson had dealt with issues of imperialism that had roots in the late 19th century. However, World War I dominated most of his second term as president. The Progressive Era had come to an end.