Chapter 7: Immigration and Urbanization
Terms in this set (60)
"birds of passage"
immigrants who intended to immigrate to America temporarily to earn money, and then return to their homelands
Conditions that drive people from their homes; e.g. scarce land in home countries; political/religious persecution, revolutions
Conditions that attract people to a new area; e.g. promise of freedom, hope for a better life, industry, jobs, land
What was the main processing center for Asian immigrants in San Francisco called?
Main processing center for immigrants arriving from Europe.
cheapest accommodations on a steamship.
Chinese Exclusion Act
The main goal of this act passed by Congress was to decrease Chinese immigration.
Northern and Western Europe
Where were most immigrants to America from before the 1890s?
Southern and Eastern Europe
Where were most immigrants to America coming from after 1890s?
What group of immigrants came to Hawaii following that territory's annexation?
Group driven out of Russia by pogroms (organized attacks)
victims of the Potato Famine of the 1840s
National Reclamation Act, 1902
encouraged irrigation of arid land in the Western states which drew Mexican farm workers northward
a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs
overt favoritism toward native-born Americans
Immigration Restriction League
nativist group that identified desirable immigrants as "British, German, and Scandinavian"
American Protective Association
a nativist group founded in 1887 that launched a vicious anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish campaign
The Immigration Restriction League influenced Congress to pass a bill requiring this test for many immigrants.
Japan agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the United States in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order.
Nativists believed that this group were superior to other ethnic groups.
growth of cities
cheapest and most convenient places to live; work for unskilled laborers
Why did most immigrants to America become city dwellers?
to assimilate people of wide-ranging cultures into the dominant culture
schools and voluntary associations
Who provided programs to teach immigrants skills needed for citizenship, such as English literacy and American history and government?
True or False:
Many immigrants wanted to abandon their traditions after settling in America.
Migrated to the cities
What did many rural people do when fewer laborers were needed on farms?
Group that moved to northern cities like Chicago and Detroit in an effort to escape racial violence, economic hardship, and political oppression in the South.
row houses, single-family dwellings that shared side walls with similar houses
transportation system designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
Street cars were introduced here in 1873
filtration and chlorination
introduced in 1870s and 1908 respectively to make city water safer
There was an increasing need for this because horse manure was piling up on the streets and sewage flowed through open gutters!
housing, transportation, water, sanitation, crime, and fire
List six problems association with urbanization.
Established the nation's first paid fire department.
Social Gospel Movement
preached salvation through service to the poor
community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants.
one of the most influential members of the settlement house movement; founded Hull House in Chicago.
settlement house in Chicago founded by Jane Addams.
an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city; offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support.
precinct workers and captains-ward boss-city boss
hierarchy of a political machine
Party boss in New York who used his power to build parks, sewer systems, and waterworks, and gave money to schools, hospitals, and orphanages.
Political machines could provide solutions to the immigrants' most pressing problems.
Why did immigrants support political machines?
the illegal use of political influence for personal gain; e.g. By helping a person find work on a construction project for the city, a political machine could ask the worker to bill the city for more than the actual cost of materials and labor
a portion of the earnings of a machine; an illegal payment for services
William "Boss" Tweed
head of Tammany Hall in NYC's powerful Democratic political machine
a political cartoonist who helped arouse public outrage against Tammany Hall's graft and the Tweed Ring
settlement houses were founded in the 1800s by these people.
new type of house that shared walls with other buildings to conserve space
giving government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected; spoils system
By allowing people to be hired for government jobs on the basis of political beliefs rather than ability, and by providing opportunities for misuse of influence.
How did patronage contribute to government incompetence and fraud?
Rutherford B. Hayes
President elected in 1876 who wanted civil service reform so he named independents to his cabinet and set up a commission to investigate the nation's customhouses.
opposed changes in the spoils system or Civil Service Reform; opposed Rutherford B. Hayes
James A. Garfield
Ohio congressman who was an independent candidate at the 1880 Republican convention; he was assassinated in Washington, D.C. while at a train station by Charles Guiteau.
Chester A. Arthur
nominated for Vice President at the 1880 Republican convention; support of Conkling; he turned reformer when he became president by passing the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
Pendleton Civil Service Act
law that required appointments to federal jobs be made through a merit system based on candidates' performance on an examination.
Democratic presidential candidate in 1884; opposed high tariffs because they increased prices.
President elect in 1888 with a majority of the Electoral College votes; campaign was financed by large contributions from companies; signed the McKinley Tariff Act
McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
raised tariffs on manufactured goods to their highest level
elected president a second time, the only to be elected to two non-consecutive terms; wanted to lower the McKinley Tariff
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