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27 terms

AP Psychology Thinking and Language (David G. Myers ch. 10)

STUDY
PLAY
cognition
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
concept
mental grouping of similar objects/events/ideas/people
prototype
mental image/best example of a category; matching new items to the prototype provides quick/easy method for including items in a category
algorithm
methodical, logical rule of procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
heuristic
simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
insight
sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; the "ah-ha" moment
confirmation bias
tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
fixation
inability to see a problem from a new perspective; impediment to problem solving
mental set
tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; impediment to problem solving
representativeness heuristic
judging likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent/match particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info
availability heuristic
estimating likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
overconfidence
tendency to be more confident than correct-- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs/judgments
framing
way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions/judgments
belief bias
tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
belief perseverance
clinging to one;s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
language
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
phoneme
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit; 40 in the English language; ex--ch, a, t, sh
morpheme
in language; the smallest unit to carry meaning; ex-- prefixes and suffixes
grammar
in language; system of rules that enable understandable communication
semantics
set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes/words/sentences; the study of meaning
syntax
rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences
babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant simultaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
one-word stage
stage in speech development, from about 1-2 yrs, during which the child speaks mostly single words
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, stage in speech development during which child speaks mostly in 2-word phrases
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly verbs and nouns (ex-- "want juice")
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think