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mental image/best example of a category; matching new items to the prototype provides quick/easy method for including items in a category
simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; impediment to problem solving
judging likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent/match particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info
estimating likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
tendency to be more confident than correct-- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs/judgments
tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
clinging to one;s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit; 40 in the English language; ex--ch, a, t, sh
set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes/words/sentences; the study of meaning
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant simultaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
stage in speech development, from about 1-2 yrs, during which the child speaks mostly single words
beginning about age 2, stage in speech development during which child speaks mostly in 2-word phrases
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly verbs and nouns (ex-- "want juice")
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