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36 terms

U1L2 Prokaryote structure: general features

Lecture 2 of BMED2801 (Nick Coleman, 2009) at the University of Sydney
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viruses
Very small and simple microbes that require a host cell to replicate
bacteria
Smallest free living organisms that have their own metabolism
coccus
A circular bacteria that can appear in pairs, chains and tetrads
rod
A straight or curved bacteria arranged in pairs, chains and pallisades
spirillum
A short, rigid, spiral shaped bacteria with only one or few twists
spirochaete
A long, thin spiral shaped bacteria with many 'twists', a rare pathogen useful for diagnosis
stalked
A bacteria with a stalk that helps it attach to surfaces
filamentous
A bacteria with straight or branching filaments
staphylococcus
Cocci arranged in clusters (example from lecture)
streptococcus
Cocci arranged in chains (example from lecture)
helicobacter pylori
Symptoms of gastric ulcers plus presence of spirilla
diphtheria
Respiratory distress plus presence of irregular rods in palisades are symptoms of...
nucleoid
Single circular chromosome plus structural proteins, NOT membrane bound
plasmid
An circular or linear piece of double stranded DNA with no protein coat
bacteriophage
A linear piece of double or single stranded DNA with a protective protein coat that attacks bacteria
nucleoid
The core genome of the bacterial cell
ciprofloxacin
An antibiotic that targets the nucleoid by inhibiting DNA synthesis
rifampin
An antibiotic that targets the nucleoid by inhibiting RNA synthesis
ribosome
A complex structure made of rRNA and proteins that performs protein synthesis
16S
A rRNA sequence that is conserved in all bacteria.
streptomycin
An antibiotic that inhibits ribosome function
Gram stain
Differentiates Gram-negative bacteria (red) from Gram-positive bacteria (purple)
peptidoglycan
Cell envelope in Gram-positive bacteria contains a thick layer of this
lipopolysaccharide
Cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria has an outer membrane of this.
porin
Protein that allows substances to pass through the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria
glycoprotein
A protein on the exterior of a plasma membrane that is important for immune function
steroid
Prokaryote membranes contain hopanoids to give rigidity, which are a type of...
plasma membrane
Selective permeability, metabolic processes and detection of environmental signals are all functions of the...
peptidoglycan
Structural polymer made of sugars and amino acids that is unique to bacteria
N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid
The peptidoglycan backbone is made of a repeating disaccharide unit that consists of...
peptide bridges
Peptidoglycan is crosslinked by...
osmotic protection
The function of peptidoglycan
penicillin
An antibiotic that targets peptidoglycan synthesis
O-antigen
The most external part of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is seen by the immune system
endotoxin
Component of Lipid A that is very toxic to humans in Gram-negative infections
SDS
A detergent that disrupts the membrane structure of bacteria