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The Awakening Final Test: Terms to Know
Terms in this set (64)
an expression of real or pretend doubt or uncertainty for rhetorical effect,
e.g. " I am at no loss for information about you and your family; but I am at a loss where to begin. Shall I relate how your father Tromes was a slave in the house of Elpias, who kept an elementary school near the temple of Theseus, and how he wore shackles on his legs and a timber collar round his neck? Or how your mother practised daylight nuptials in an outhouse next door to heros the bone-setter, and so brought you up to act in tableaux vivants and to excel in minor parts on the stage?"
the use of a word in a context that differs from its proper application,
e.g. "He was foolish enough to order the new music CD sight unseen."
"As one said that disliked a picture with a crooked nose,' The elbow of his nose is disproportionable.'"
misplacement of a single element,
e.g. "About suffering, they were never wrong."
repetition of both beginnings and endings,
e.g. "Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelite? So am I. Are they the seed of Abraham? So am I."
a feeling of being frustrated or annoyed because of failure or disappointment. e.g. "Max thought he had studied well for the exam; however, he was chagrined when he found that the the test covered material that he hadn't deemed important enough to review."
proving that someone is not guilty of doing something wrong.
farce / farcical
comical; something that is so bad that it is as ridiculous; empty or patently ridiculous.
an unnecessary display of wealth, knowledge, etc., that is done to attract attention, admiration, or envy. "An example of ostentation is a solid gold toilet seat with diamond-studded flusher."
showing that you disapprove of or do not like someone or something: showing disrespect or scorn for someone or something.
the quality of seeming real.
"Because the suspect's story lacked verisimilitude, the judge refused to listen to the lawyer's motion for dismissal."
ending a series of lines, phrases or clauses with the same word.
e.g. " What lies before us, and what lies behind us is tiny compared to what lies within us."
a familiar proverb or wise saying.
"Murphy's Law is a good example of an adage that takes a pessimistic view of life."
a statement in which two opposing ideas are balanced. e.g. "A man should be mourned at his birth, not his death."
a construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions, e.g. "I came, I saw, I conquered."
a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed ("Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary")
the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from the context ("Some people prefer cats; others, dogs").
a term used to point out a characteristic of a person. Homeric epithets are often compound adjectives (" swift-footed Achilles") that become an almost formulaic part of a name. Epithets can be abusive or offensive but are not so by definition. For example, athletes may be proud of their given epithets ("The Rocket")
a type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite ( describing a particularly horrific scene by saying, "It was not a pretty picture"
the mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds similar ("The doctor wrote a subscription")
non sequitur n
an inference that does not follow logically from the premises (literally, " does not follow").
"Steven Johnson grew up in poverty. Therefore, he will make a fine President of the United States."
a comment that interrupts the immediate subject, often to qualify or explain;
"Strawberry jam, for instance, doesn't make a good spaghetti sauce.
Uncle Charlie, when he was told about the escaped fleas, broke out in a blush.
Cobras, although they are essentially moody, like an occasional chuckle."
a strong verbal denunciation. The term comes from the orations of Demosthenes against Philip of Macedonia in the fourth century.
"The head coach was briefly suspended after launching into a foul-mouthed philippic during a press conference."
the use, for rhetorical effect, of more conjunction than is necessary or natural
"There were frowzy fields, and cow-houses, and dunghills, and dustheaps, and ditches, and gardens, and summer-houses, and carpet-beating grounds, at the very door of the Railway."
a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise ("All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal"). e.g "stain her Honour or her new Brocade."
synesthesia ( or synaesthesia) n
describing one kind of sensation in term of another ("a loud color," "a sweet sound")
needless repetition which adds no meaning or understanding ("widow woman," "free gift")
""Repeat that again."
having a harsh, discordant sound
"Even the finest orchestra makes a cacophonous racket when they're tuning their instruments in unison."
1. excessively particular, critical, or demanding; hard to please:
"a fastidious eater."
2. requiring or characterized by excessive care or delicacy; painstaking.
"Constantly licking themselves, cats are fastidious creatures."
"Although the fastidious painter had all of his brushes, he refused to paint because his special canvasses were unavailable."
1. objectionably aggressive in offering one's unrequested and unwanted services, help, or advice; meddlesome:
"an officious person."
2. domineering; intrusive; interfering
"I usually give law officers their due respect, but I just didn't appreciate that policeman's officious attitude when he was questioning me."
1. easily aroused or changeable; lively or explosive;
2. TENDING TO VARY FREQUENTLY; FICKLE
"When put together, the two chemicals form a volatile mixture capable of destroying a huge building."
(adj.) stealthy, secret, intended to escape observation; made or accomplished by fraud
"Even the finest orchestra makes a cacophonous racket when they're tuning their instruments in unison."
A term from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name," metonymy is a figure of speech (type of metaphor) in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. For example, a news release that claims "the White House declared" rather than "the President declared" is using metonymy; Shakespeare uses it to signify the male and female sexes in As You Like It: "doublet and hose ought to show itself courageous to petticoat." The substituted term generally carries a more potent emotional impact.
a figure of speech. and address to an absent figure or to a thing as if it were there and could listen. ex. "Oh Rose, thou art sick!"
a direct and explicit address to an absent person or non-human entity "O Grave! where is thy Victory?"
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor, as in "All hands on deck!"), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword).
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity
"1. The light of the fire is a sight. (repetition
of the long i sound)
2. Go slow over the road. (repetition of the
long o sound)
3. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled
peppers (repetition of the short e and
long i sounds)
4. Try as I might, the kite did not fly.
(repetition of the long i sound)
"We have differences of opinion, but there's no reason to resort to name calling and personal acrimony."
1. (v.) to scorn, hold in low esteem (Insecure about their jobs, the older employees disdained the recently hired ones, who were young and capable.) 2. (n.) scorn, low esteem (After learning of his immoral actions, Justine held Lawrence in disdain.)
"Pacifists are likely to disdain my right to gun ownership."
Strong dislike; bitter hostility
"Why do you have such animosity towards me when I have done nothing to you?"
The state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes
"Even though the new job meant more money, Tad felt a great deal of ambivalence about accepting the position."
approval and praise
"I need to write a powerful resume to gain approbation from an employer."
(adj) Humorous, jesting, jolly, joking
"Her jocular personality always made the customers smile."
1. having bad connotations
2. disparaging; derogatory, uncomplimentary
"The evening's headline news covered an international scandal caused by a pejorative statement the famous senator had made in reference to a foreign leader."
"While the detective was supposed to be neutral, he described the suspect in a pejorative manner."
"The lottery winner was incredulous and could not believe his good fortune."
concerned or anxious (about another person); expressing care; eagerly attentive; very careful
"I am going to keep a solicitous eye out for criminals in this hard-hit neighborhood."
(adj.) overbearing, arrogant; seeking to dominate; pressing, compelling
"The principal is an imperious woman who expects to be obeyed."
1. having the qualities of chivalry, as courage, courtesy, and loyalty.
2. considerate and courteous to women; gallant.
3. gracious and honorable toward an enemy, especially a defeated one, and toward the weak or poor.
"My chivalrous husband always opens doors for me."
shy (flirtatiously); showing a (pretended) lack of self-confidence; modest; coquettish
"She coyly refused to say anything more about it."
overstepping boundaries, taking liberties
"It would be presumptuous of me to tell my boss how to do things."
nonplused, nonplussed adj
In state of confusion, bewilderment or perplexity
"She looked slightly nonplussed at first but composed herself quickly."
complicated; intricately involved:
"a convoluted way of describing a simple device"
"The argument was so convoluted that most people missed the point."
scornful; regarding someone as beneath you;
showing contempt or lack of respect
"He looked at the waiter with a disdainful glare."
1. ostentatious in one's learning.
2. overly concerned with minute details or formalisms, especially in teaching.
"Because Irvin wanted to impress his friends by being pedantic, he decided to point out all the grammar flaws in the president's speech."
pretentious and vulgar display intended to impress, show off
"The actress avoids ostentation. She owns a small house and drives an inexpensive car."
grimly or scornfully mocking, bitterly sarcastic
"Female readers were turned off by the newspaper editor's sardonic column that described violence as the best way to teach a woman."
1. harsh or corrosive in tone
2. of a substance, especially a strong acid; capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action
"What was supposed to be a civil debate turned into a debate reaching vitriolic levels, ending with both participants screaming obscenities."
tending to clear from a charge of fault or guilt.
"If the evidence is exculpatory, he is discharged; if not, he is led out to be convicted."
a conception of what is artistically valid or beautiful in art, culture, or nature
"A professor for the Art School had remarked that he' d never met a man with a poorer sense of aesthetics."
1. firmly resolved or determined; set in purpose or opinion:
"Her parents wanted her to marry, but she was focused on her education and remained resolute."
2. characterized by firmness and determination, as the temper, spirit, actions, etc.
"The mayor was asked to take resolute action against the looters."
resembling farce (foolish show; mockery; a ridiculous sham); ludicrous; absurd
"Critics described the farcical play as an absurd piece of writing that could have only been created by an intoxicated playwright."
An increase in rank or wealth; growth in power.
"No sooner had Leo been made pope than he formed schemes for the aggrandizement of his family."
reproach n, v
1. blame, disgrace (noun);
2. criticize, express disappointment in (verb)
"Brian reproached the customer for failing to rewind the video he had rented." (verb)
1. unstable or easily excited;
2. irresponsible; slightly delirious; light-headed; mildly crazy; capricious; frivolous; (esp. of a woman's behavior) often changing, esp. from one lover to another; impulsive
"Too late she re-evaluated the worth of the family, which she had discarded for a flighty affair."
A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite. Litote is the opposite of hyperbole. Examples: "Not a bad idea," "Not many," "It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain" (Salinger, Catcher in the Rye).
A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
"I must be cruel to be kind." Hamlet
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